Creation Week: Yom Sheni (Second Day)

Creation Day 2 - Atmosphere

Colossians 1:15 [Who] is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation[?] 16 For [in] Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He [has existed prior to] all things, and in Him all things [endure]. (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 19th and the “morning” of March 20th of the pagan Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

The Scriptures state that the following events occurred on the second day of Creation:

Genesis 1:6 Then God said, “Let there be [a firmament] in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” 7 God made the [firmament], and separated the waters which were below the [firmament] from the waters which were above the [firmament]; and it was so. 8 God called the [firmament] heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day. (NASB)

The Lockman Foundation used the word “expanse” for the literal “firmament.” As the same Hebrew word is employed throughout this passage, focus on Genesis 1:6. That word is raqia with its root being raqa. The former is defined as an extended surface while the latter means to beat or spread out. That does not really provide a feel for its true meaning, so examine the following passages in Job and Isaiah:

Job 22:14 ‘Clouds are a hiding place for Him, so that He cannot see; And He walks on the vault [lit. circle] of heaven.’ (NASB)

Isaiah 40:22 It is He who [is enthroned] above the circle of the earth,
And its inhabitants are like grasshoppers,
Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain
And spreads them out like a tent to dwell in. (NASB)

The Hebrew word used on both verses translated as “circle” or “vault” is chug. Now, there are four descriptors: expanse, firmament, vault, and circle. How does Merriam-Webster define “firmament?”

As this definition references “heavens” and “heaven” appears in Genesis 1:8 as shamayim (=heaven or sky) with its root being mayim (=water), let us examine that primary definition as well:

Now, two more descriptors have been added: “arch of the sky” and “dome.” What is contained within this firmament? The water above (=clouds) and the waters below, which will be explored momentarily. Frequently, the Bible speaks of birds flying in the heavens. What are these “heavens” contained within the dome?

Meteorologists et al. refer to them as the:

  1. Troposhere,
  2. Stratosphere,
  3. Mesosphere,
  4. Thermosphere,
  5. Ionosphere,
  6. Exosphere, and
  7. Magnetosphere.

Who has not heard of the “seven heavens?” These have been proven to exist scientifically! How would the ancients have known that if it had not been revealed to them?

The most famous Biblical passages regarding the waters below (=“the fountains of the [great] deep”) and above (=“the floodgates of the sky”) are regarding the Great Flood:

Genesis 7:11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened. 12 The rain fell upon the earth for forty days and forty nights. (NASB)

Genesis 8:1 But God remembered Noah and all the beasts and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God caused a wind to pass over the earth, and the water subsided. 2 Also the fountains of the deep and the floodgates of the sky were closed, and the rain from the sky was restrained; 3 and the water receded steadily from the earth, and at the end of one hundred and fifty days the water decreased. (NASB)

All have been taught – with great certainty in our formative years – the internal structure of the Earth. Yet, the deepest borehole ever drilled was the Kola Superdeep Borehole at slightly over 7.6 miles. A significant find was discovered outlined in the “Research” section of the referenced Wikipedia article:

To scientists, one of the more fascinating findings to emerge from this well is that no transition from granite to basalt was found at the depth of about 7 km (4.3 mi), where the velocity of seismic waves has a discontinuity.  Instead the change in the seismic wave velocity is caused by a metamorphic transition in the granite rock. In addition, the rock at that depth had been thoroughly fractured and was saturated with water, which was surprising. This water, unlike surface water, must have come from deep-crust minerals and had been unable to reach the surface because of a layer of impermeable rock.

There you have it; scientific confirmation of the fountains of the deep! The source for the quote above was an article authored by Alan Bellows entitled “The Deepest Hole.”

Examine what Jubilees states regarding the second day of Creation:

Jubilees 2:4 And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day – half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day.

That concurs with the Genesis 1:6-8 account. But, Josephus adds additional details in Antiquities:

Ant. 1.1.1 … After this, on the second day, he placed the heaven over the whole world, and separated it from the other parts, and he determined it should stand by itself. He also placed a crystalline [firmament] round it, and put it together in a manner agreeable to the earth, and fitted it for giving moisture and rain, and for affording the advantage of dews.

According to him, the firmament was a self-standing, crystalline structure fitted for to provide moisture to the Earth via rain and dew. Regarding the “waters below,” Josephus remained silent.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Creation Week and Mo’edim (appointed times) series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

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