Mo’ed: Pesach (Passover) – The Paschal Lamb of God – 14 Abib

Isaiah 53:4 Surely our griefs He Himself bore,
And our sorrows He carried;
Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken,
Smitten of God, and afflicted.
5 But He was pierced through for our transgressions,
He was crushed for our iniquities;
The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him,
And by His scourging we are healed.
6 All of us like sheep have gone astray,
Each of us has turned to his own way;
But [lit. Yahoah] has caused the iniquity of us all
To fall on Him. (NASB)

In accordance with the pagan Gregorian calendar during the “evening” of April 3rd and the “morning” of April 4th, arguably the third most important event of the Bible occurred (behind Christ’s Resurrection and the Holy Spirit’s being sent):  Christ’s crucifixion as the Lamb of God in 36 CE. This marks Passover (Heb. Pesach), the second of God’s immovable appointed times (Heb. mo’edim) in perpetuity. Although not everything in the movie is correct, now is the perfect time to watch The Passion of the Christ to remind us of the brutality that Yehoshu’a (=Yahoah saves; Gr. ‘Iesous/Eng. Joshua) underwent to become our Redeemer and Savior so that believers in Him may receive Grace (i.e., a judicial pardon/clemency) on Judgment Day.

On the morning of April 1, 2018, billions of unwitting Christians paid covert homage to Ēostre, the spring fertility goddess of the dawn, thinking they are celebrating Resurrection Day.  After their movable, sunrise Easter (“day of the Sun“) services, they will pay no attention to the symbolism behind bunnies and eggs — both fertility symbols. Meanwhile, rabbinic Jews (Matthew 23:8) falsely began celebrating Passover on 15 Nisan – in contradiction to Torah – four evenings ago (March 30, 2018) based on their pagan Babylonian calendar and teachings from rabbinic “sages” in the Babylonian Talmud (Heb. Talmud Bavli).  For more on this Babylonian assimilation, see the article entitled: Revelation Study: Mystery Babylon.

To learn the truth, it is necessary to start at the beginning… I touched upon the differences between Passover/Preparation Day vs. Unleavened Bread and Weekly vs. Annual (or High) Sabbaths.  Now, those will be expounded upon.

What the Law of Moses (Heb. Moshe) States

The most definitive passage regarding the appointed times is in Leviticus 23. Let’s review what that chapter states about Passover and Unleavened Bread:

Leviticus 23:1 [Lit. Yahoah] spoke again to Moses, saying, 2 “Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘The [lit. Yahoah’s] appointed times (Heb. mo’edim; pl. of mo’ed) which you shall proclaim as holy convocations — My appointed times are these: (NASB)

Author’s Note: See how false rabbinic traditions regarding the recitation of the Tetragrammaton as the Heb. Adonai (=my lords) is actually invoking the Greek Adonis and the Babylonian Tammuz? Because of this false tradition of “not taking Yahoah’s Name in vain” (Exodus 20:7 and Deuteronomy 5:11), it has led to translators employing “the Lord(‘s)” throughout English translations as well as the incorrect Yahweh in textual analysis; see the article on Mystery Babylon for details. We can certainly say Yahoah within the context of the Scriptures; that is NOT taking His Name in vain!  Again, the basis is FALSE rabbinic tradition.  In fact, it led to their forgetting how to even pronounce The Name (Heb. HaShem) over the millenia.

Leviticus 23:5 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month [lit. between the two evenings] is [lit. Yahoah’s] Passover. (NASB)

Leviticus 23:6 Then on the fifteenth day of the same month there is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to [lit. Yahoah]; for seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. 7 On the first day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work. 8 But for seven days you shall present an offering by fire to [lit. Yahoah]. On the seventh day is a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work.’” (NASB)

Is the first (or seventh) month Nisan? (Author’s Note: Rabbinic Jews’ hearts are so hardened and are so confused that they even have TWO calendars — a civil and a religious/ecclessiatical.  It’s a wonder that any of them recognized their Messiah!).

Deuteronomy 16:1 “Observe the month of Abib and celebrate the Passover to [lit. Yahoah] your [lit. Elohim], for in the month of Abib [lit. Yahoah] your [lit. Elohim] brought you out of Egypt by night. 2 You shall sacrifice the Passover to [lit. Yahoah] your [lit. Elohim] from the flock and the herd, in the place where [lit. Yahoah] chooses to establish His name. (NASB)

Elohim is the plural of Eloah.  Why is Elohim employed?  Because the tribe or family of El is comprised of the Father (Heb. Elyon; =Most High), Holy Spirit (Heb. Ruach HaQodesh; (=Spirit of the Holy One; Holy Spirit), the Son (preincarnate Yahoah and incarnate Yehoshu’a), 6-winged seraphim, 4-winged cherubim, wingless arch-/angels, and the Heavenly host (Gr. sabaóth).  As these all abide in the Heavenly realm (and not the earthly), by definition, they are extraterrestrials.  For more on the Elohim, read the article Creation Week: Yom Rishon (First Day).

We know that the Gregorian and Masoretic calendars are pagan in origin, so what calendar correctly portrays this?  The one from the Dead Sea Scrolls housed at the Shrine of the Book; see the Qumran calendar.

The Original Passover

Now that we know with certainty from the Torah that Passover and Unleavened Bread are two DIFFERENT appointed times — with the former occuring on 14 Abib and the latter from 15-21 Abib with the 15th and 21st serving as annual or High Sabbaths — let’s review the original Passover story in Egypt.

There are three important things to remember at that point in history:

  1. The Israelites were captives in Egypt (specifically in the Land of Goshen),
  2. Egypt had endured nine of the ten plagues foretold to Pharoah (spoken directly from Yahoah to Moses), and
  3. The Law of Moses had NOT been given yet.

Although the specific pharaoh of the Exodus is not clearly identified in the Scriptures, Ramesses II was popularized as the pharaoh of Moses’ time in the 1956 movie The Ten Commandments.  Even the Book of Jubilees remains silent as to the explicit name of this Pharaoh.

Let’s pickup with the “death of the firstborn” in Exodus 11.

Exodus 11:1 Now [lit. Yahoah] said to Moses, “One more plague I will bring on Pharaoh and on Egypt; after that he will let you go from here. When he lets you go, he will surely drive you out from here completely.” (NASB)

Exodus 11:4 Moses said, “Thus says [lit. Yahoah], ‘About midnight I am going out into the midst of Egypt, 5 and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of the Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the slave girl who is behind the millstones; all the firstborn of the cattle as well. 6 Moreover, there shall be a great cry in all the land of Egypt, such as there has not been before and such as shall never be again. 7 But against any of the sons of Israel a dog will not even bark, whether against man or beast, that you may understand how [lit. Yahoah] makes a distinction between Egypt and Israel.’ (NASB)

Keep “about midnight” in your back pocket for a moment; we will revisit that. The significance of the paschal lamb is about to be discussed:

Exodus 12:1 Now [lit. Yahoah] said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 2 “This month shall be the beginning of months for you; it is to be the first month of the year to you. 3 Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying, ‘On the tenth of this month they are each one to take a lamb for themselves, according to their fathers’ households, a lamb for each household. 4 Now if the household is too small for a lamb, then he and his neighbor nearest to his house are to take one according to the number of persons in them; according to what each man should eat, you are to divide the lamb. 5 Your lamb shall be an unblemished male a year old; you may take it from the sheep or from the goats. 6 You shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month, then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel is to kill it at twilight. 7 Moreover, they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of the houses in which they eat it. 8 They shall eat the flesh that same night, roasted with fire, and they shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. 9 Do not eat any of it raw or boiled at all with water, but rather roasted with fire, both its head and its legs along with its entrails. 10 And you shall not leave any of it over until morning, but whatever is left of it until morning, you shall burn with fire. 11 Now you shall eat it in this manner: with your loins girded, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in haste — it is [lit. Yahoah’s] Passover. 12 For I will go through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments — I am [lit. Yahoah]. 13 The blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you live; and when I see the blood I will pass over you, and no plague will befall you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt. (NASB)

First of all, this reconfirms that Yahoah’s Passover is on the fourteenth of the first month. But, v5a provides the foreshadowing for the Lamb of God:

Exodus 12:5 Your lamb shall be an unblemished male a year old… (NASB)

Yehoshu’a is the Lamb of God (John 1:29). He is unblemished (i.e., sinless) who is obviously male.  But, the interesting thing to note is that most “theologians” and Biblical “scholars” contend that Christ’s ministry lasted three and a half years as three Passovers are mentioned in the Gospel of John.  What they fail to recognize from Torah is Second Passover (Heb. Pesach Sheni) on the 14th day of the second month.  This appointed time will be developed further below.

In the meantime know this:  Christ was born on the Feast of Weeks (Heb. Shavu’ot) in 6 CE during the census of Quirinius (Luke 2:2).  His ministry began when he was nearly 30 years old (Luke 3:23) — in fact, He was 28.  Recall that He was of the tribe of Judah — NOT Levi — therefore, the Levitical laws for priesthood did not apply (Hebrews 7:14).  In fact, He is of the order of Melchizedek (Heb. Malki-tsedeq; =my king is righteous[ness]).  It can be definitively deduced from the Scriptures that His ministry lasted EXACTY 574 yomim or 1.58 Qumran calendar years; this will be discussed in detail in mid-August.  Therefore, from a ministry perspective, He was a YEAR OLD AT THE TIME OF HIS CRUCIFIXION! He met ALL of the requirements for serving as the paschal lamb from Exodus 12:5a:

  1. Lamb of God,
  2. Unblemished (i.e., sinless),
  3. Male, and
  4. A year old (i.e., His ministry lasted 1.58 years).

When was the paschal lamb killed? On the 14th of the first month. When was Christ crucified?  On 14 Abib in 36 CE.  Our God is truly omniscient!

Recall the “about midnight” statement in Exodus 11:4. Now, let’s examine the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Heb. Chag HaMatzot):

Feast of Unleavened Bread

Exodus 12:14 ‘Now this day will be a memorial to you, and you shall celebrate it as a feast to [lit. Yahoah]; throughout your generations you are to celebrate it as a permanent ordinance. 15 Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, but on the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses; for whoever eats anything leavened from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel. 16 On the first day you shall have a holy assembly, and another holy assembly on the seventh day; no work at all shall be done on them, except what must be eaten by every person, that alone may be prepared by you. 17 You shall also observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this very day I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt; therefore you shall observe this day throughout your generations as a permanent ordinance. 18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at evening. 19 Seven days there shall be no leaven found in your houses; for whoever eats what is leavened, that person shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is an alien or a native of the land. 20 You shall not eat anything leavened; in all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened bread.’”

21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go and take for yourselves lambs according to your families, and slay the Passover lamb. 22 You shall take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood which is in the basin, and apply some of the blood that is in the basin to the lintel and the two doorposts; and none of you shall go outside the door of his house until morning.

A Memorial of Redemption

23 For [lit. Yahoah] will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, [lit. Yahoah] will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to come in to your houses to smite you. 24 And you shall observe this event as an ordinance for you and your children forever. 25 When you enter the land which [lit. Yahoah] will give you, as He has promised, you shall observe this rite. 26 And when your children say to you, ‘What does this rite mean to you?’ 27 you shall say, ‘It is a Passover sacrifice to [lit. Yahoah] who passed over the houses of the sons of Israel in Egypt when He smote the Egyptians, but spared our homes.’” And the people bowed low and worshiped.

28 Then the sons of Israel went and did so; just as [lit. Yahoah] had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.

29 Now it came about at midnight that [lit. Yahoah] struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of cattle. 30 Pharaoh arose in the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians, and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was no home where there was not someone dead. (NASB)

Without sacrificial blood, there can be no Redemption nor Atonement; hence, the paschal lamb’s blood on the lintel and doorposts. We see from v29 that the actual act of the “Passover” did occur about midnight on 15 Abib (that’s why rabbinic Jews consider Passover to be on 15 Nisan). However, without the paschal sacrifice on 14 Abib, Israel would not have been spared from Yahoah’s wrath, either; see vv21-23 concentrating on v23. That last verse bears repeating:

Exodus 12:23 For [lit. Yahoah] will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, [lit. Yahoah] will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to come in to your houses to smite you. (NASB)

THAT IS THE POINT THE JEWRY MISS! In Christ’s time in 36 CE, they were expecting the King of kings and Lord of lords to vanquish the Romans, but they didn’t realize that the Suffering Servant of Isaiah 53 had to come FIRST! The conquering Messiah is certainly coming (Revelation 19:11-16)!

He (i.e., Yehoshu’a in the incarnate form of Yahoah) shed His own blood — as the ultimate paschal sacrifice — so that believers in Him may have eternal life and not experience the second death!  Those who do not believe in Him will be judged by the Law, found guilty, and will be thrown into the lake of fire known as Gehenna on Judgment Day.  Read John 3:16 in context.  That is the whole point of Grace, which is a judicial pardon/clemency on Judgment Day; those who believe in Him — the paschal Lamb of God — WILL NOT BE JUDGED (although unworthy of His Grace).  And, “The Name (Heb. HaShem) of the only begotten Son of God” in v18 is Yehoshu’a (=Yahoah is salvation) — the Light of the first “yom” of Creation in vv19-21!

One fact remains from Exodus 12:18… that although Passover (14 Abib) and Unleavened Bread (15-21 Abib) are separate appointed times, they are inextricably linked.

Last Supper (NOT a Seder!)

Many “Biblical scholars” state that the Last Supper was a Passover seder.  Let’s set the baseline for the timeline:

Matthew 26:1 When Jesus had finished all these words, He said to His disciples, 2 “You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man is to be handed over for crucifixion.”
3 Then the chief priests and the elders of the people were gathered together in the court of the high priest, named Caiaphas; 4 and they plotted together to seize Jesus by stealth and kill Him. 5 But they were saying, “Not during the festival, otherwise a riot might occur among the people.” (NASB)

From v2 in Christ’s own words, we “know that after two days that the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man (Christ Himself) is to be handed over for crucifixion.”  Unfortunately, that does not tell us whether it is the 14th or 15th of Abib (mistakenly called Nisan from the time of the Babylonian captivity).  However, v5 makes it very clear that it was NOT to be on 15-21 Abib “during the festival.”

We know that the Triumphal Entry (Matthew 21:1-11) occurred on 9 Abib on the fifth day of the week in 36 CE (not Palm Sunday).  After cleansing the Temple (Matthew 21:12-16), He left for Bethany to spend the night (Matthew 21:17); that would have been the evening of 10 Abib on the sixth day of the week.  The next morning, He returned to the Temple in Jerusalem (Matthew 21:18) — still on 10 Abib, on which he taught again confounding the Pharisees and Sadducees while exposing their hypocrisy (Matthew 21:23-23:39).  He then left the Temple for the Mount of Olives (Matthew 24:1-3) and foretold of His Second Coming and of Judgment Day to His disciples (Matthew 24-25).  Although the opening of Matthew 26:1-2 appears to be a continuation of Matthew 24-25, it must have occurred on the weekly Sabbath of 11 Abib.  Let’s examine what the other Gospels state.

Let’s start with the Triumphal Entry (Mark 11:1-11).  Note a new piece of information in v11.  It was late on 9 Abib when He entered the Temple and looked around, so they returned to Bethany to spend the evening.  Therefore, the cleansing of the Temple (Mark 11:12-19) did not occur until the morning of 10 Abib.  Note in v19 that they left Jerusalem again that evening — once again returning to Bethany as we learned in Matthew 21:17.  The withered fig tree was encountered on the morning of 11 Abib, the weekly Sabbath (Mark 11:20-25; note that v26 did not appear in early manuscripts).  This does not mean that Matthew is incorrect; that account just omitted a piece of information regarding the exact timing of events that was reconciled on Mark.  Mark 11:27-13:37 generally concurs with Matthew 21:23-25:46 with some minor additions and differences.  Mark 14 then realigns with Matthew 26 — on 11 Abib, the weekly Sabbath; the Passover would be commencing on 14 Abib as Torah states.

Luke essentially mirrors the Matthew account where it appears that the cleansing of the Temple occurred on the same day as the Triumphal Entry (Luke 19:28-48).  John does not even discuss the cleansing of the Temple — only the Triumphal Entry (John 12:12-19).  But, what the John account does is nail down the date of the Triumphal Entry to 9 Abib (John 12:1-12 concentrating on vv1 and 12); reference the calendar from the Dead Sea Scrolls.

The point of this was to definitively denote that the Passover is on 14 Abib as is corroborated by Torah; it is NOT the “first day of Unleavened Bread” as translators mistakenly assume from false Jewish tradition.  The Torah is clear:  Passover/Preparation Day occurs on 14 Abib while Unleavened Bread is from 15-21 Abib — with the 15th and the 21st serving as annual Sabbaths.  To reiterate:

Leviticus 23:5 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month [lit. between the two evenings] is [lit. Yahoah’s] Passover.

6 Then on the fifteenth day of the same month there is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to [lit. Yahoah]; for seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. 7 On the first day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work. 8 But for seven days you shall present an offering by fire to [lit. Yahoah]. On the seventh day is a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work. (NASB)

Recall that Christ’s Hebrew Name is Yehoshu’a (Gr. ‘Iesous/Aram. Yeshua/Eng. Joshua), which means “Yahoah saves/is salvation.”  Just as Joshua, the son of Nun, led the Israelites into the Promised Land, so, too, does Joshua, the Son of God, lead believers in Him to salvation.

Now, to return to the meal itself…  How do we know that the Last Supper was not a Passover seder?  Because one key element was missing:  roasted lamb!  It is REQUIRED at a seder:  here is the Law regarding the Passover Lamb:

Exodus 12:1 Now [lit. Yahoah] said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 2 “This month shall be the beginning of months for you; it is to be the first month of the year to you. 3 Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying, ‘On the tenth of this month they are each one to take a lamb for themselves, according to their fathers’ households, a lamb for each household. 4 Now if the household is too small for a lamb, then he and his neighbor nearest to his house are to take one according to the number of persons in them; according to what each man should eat, you are to divide the lamb. 5 Your lamb shall be an unblemished male a year old; you may take it from the sheep or from the goats. 6 You shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month, then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel is to kill it [lit. between the evenings]. 7 Moreover, they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of the houses in which they eat it. 8 They shall eat the flesh that same night, roasted with fire, and they shall eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. 9 Do not eat any of it raw or boiled at all with water, but rather roasted with fire, both its head and its legs along with its entrails. 10 And you shall not leave any of it over until morning, but whatever is left of it until morning, you shall burn with fire. 11 Now you shall eat it in this manner: with your loins girded, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in haste — it is [lit. Yahoah’s] Passover. 12 For I will go through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments — I am [lit. Yahoah]. 13 The blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you live; and when I see the blood I will pass over you, and no plague will befall you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt. (NASB)

To reiterate the foreshadowing of Christ’s crucifixion from vv5-6:

  • He is the Lamb of God,
  • Unblemished (i.e., sinless),
  • Male,
  • A year old (i.e., His ministry on Earth lasted EXACTLY 574 yomim or 1.58 Qumran calendar years. — not 3-1/2 years as most “scholars” incorrectly state), and
  • Killed between the evenings (i.e., crucified during the “morning” of 14 Abib).

Note:  This is to occur in perpetuity on the Preparation Day (14 Abib); no work can be performed on an annual Sabbath.  The first day of Unleavened Bread (15 Abib) is an annual Sabbath.

Preparation Day

That’s a good segue into the topic of the Preparation Days.  As no work may be performed on a Sabbath — not even cooking, the day prior would be a preparation day.  On that day, one would perform the work for that day in addition to that of the Sabbath itself.  The concept originated during the Exodus (which is anything but a “founding myth” per the Wikipedia article) when the Israelites were to gather a double omer of manna per person prior to the Sabbath.  This is documented in Exodus 16:1-36 and Numbers 11:1-9.  The pertinent verses are:

Exodus 16:4 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day, that I may test them, whether or not they will walk in My instruction. 5 On the sixth day, when they prepare what they bring in, it will be twice as much as they gather daily. (NASB)

Exodus 16:15 When the sons of Israel saw it, they said to one another, “What is it?” For they did not know what it was. And Moses said to them, “It is the bread which [lit. Yahoah] has given you to eat. 16 This is what [lit. Yahoah] has commanded, ‘Gather of it every man as much as he should eat; you shall take an omer apiece according to the number of persons each of you has in his tent. (NASB)

Exodus 16:22 Now on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one. When all the leaders of the congregation came and told Moses, 23 then he said to them, “This is what [lit. Yahoah] meant: Tomorrow is a sabbath observance, a holy sabbath to the Lord. Bake what you will bake and boil what you will boil, and all that is left over put aside to be kept until morning.” 24 So they put it aside until morning, as Moses had ordered, and it did not become foul nor was there any worm in it. 25 Moses said, “Eat it today, for today is a sabbath to [lit. Yahoah]; today you will not find it in the field. 26 Six days you shall gather it, but on the seventh day, the sabbath, there will be none.” (NASB)

There are fifty-two (52) weekly Sabbaths as well as the following seven (7) annual Sabbaths:

  • The first and last days of Unleavened Bread (Heb. Chag HaMatzot) on 15 Abib on the fourth day of the week and 21 Abib on the third day of the week;
  • Feast of Weeks (Heb. Shavu’ot) on the fifteenth day of the third month on the first day of the week;
  • The Day of Blasting [of Trumpets/Shofar] (Heb. Yom Teruah) on the first day of the seventh month on the fourth day of the week (Rosh Hashanah is a false tradition manufactured by “rabbinic sages” and is certainly not the literal “head of the year”);
  • Day of Atonement (Heb. Yom Kippur) on the tenth day of the seventh month on the sixth day of the week; and
  • Feast of Tabernacles/Booths (Heb. Sukkot) on the fifteenth and twenty-second of the seventh month — both on the fourth day of the week.

The Preparation Day (14 Abib) in the New Testament is specifically mentioned before the first day of Unleavened Bread (15 Abib), which is an annual Sabbath:

Mark 15:42 When evening had already come, because it was the preparation day, that is, the day before the Sabbath, 43 Joseph of Arimathea came, a prominent member of the Council, who himself was waiting for the kingdom of God; and he gathered up courage and went in before Pilate, and asked for the body of Jesus. 44 Pilate wondered if He was dead by this time, and summoning the centurion, he questioned him as to whether He was already dead. 45 And ascertaining this from the centurion, he granted the body to Joseph. 46 Joseph bought a linen cloth, took Him down, wrapped Him in the linen cloth and laid Him in a tomb which had been hewn out in the rock; and he rolled a stone against the entrance of the tomb. 47 Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses were looking on to see where He was laid. (NASB)

Note that because Joseph of Arimathea had touched Christ’s corpse, He had become unclean and could not participate in the Passover; however, he could participate in the Second Passover (Heb. Pesach Sheni) a month later (just not in the lunar month of Iyar as the Wikipedia article incorrectly states).  Do you see how God pre-planned everything?

Christ’s Crucifixion and Burial – Hung on a Tree for the False Charge of Blasphemy

So, why was Christ’s crucifixion so brutal?  Why was the Son of God treated so violently before His death?  Again, it goes back to the Law (Heb. Torah).  As was explored above, Yehoshu’a was falsely charged with the crime of blasphemy:

Matthew 26:59 Now the chief priests and the whole Council kept trying to obtain false testimony against Jesus [lit. Joshua], so that they might put Him to death. 60 They did not find any, even though many false witnesses came forward. But later on two came forward, 61 and said, “This man stated, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and to rebuild it in three days.’” 62 The high priest stood up and said to Him, “Do You not answer? What is it that these men are testifying against You?” 63 But Jesus kept silent. And the high priest said to Him, “I adjure You by the living God, that You tell us whether You are the Christ, the Son of God.” 64 Jesus [lit. Joshua] said to him, “You have said it yourself; nevertheless I tell you, hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven.”

65 Then the high priest tore his robes and said, “He has blasphemed! What further need do we have of witnesses? Behold, you have now heard the blasphemy; 66 what do you think?” They answered, “He deserves death!” (NASB)

Blasphemy is one of the capital crimes in the Torah requiring death.

Deuteronomy 21:22 “If a man has committed a sin worthy of death and he is put to death, and you hang him on a tree, 23 his corpse shall not hang all night on the tree, but you shall surely bury him on the same day (for he who is hanged is accursed of God), so that you do not defile your land which the Lord your God gives you as an inheritance.” (NASB)

Note that burial is on the same day as when the “criminal” was put to death, but let’s put that aside for the moment.  To demonstrate El Elyon’s (=God Most High) in revealing his Son to us, Christ’s name and “crime” was inscribed on the titlos per standard Roman crucifixion:

John 19:19 Pilate also wrote an inscription and put it on the cross. It was written, “JESUS [lit. Joshua] THE NAZARENE, THE KING OF THE JEWS.” 20 Therefore many of the Jews read this inscription, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, Latin and in Greek. 21 So the chief priests of the Jews were saying to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews’; but that He said, ‘I am King of the Jews.’” 22 Pilate answered, “What I have written I have written.” (NASB)

From this, the well-known Latin “INRI” and lesser known Greek “INBI” acronyms originated.  Christ’s exchange with Pilate beforehand is why “the King of the Jews” was inscribed:

Matthew 27:11 Now Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor questioned Him, saying, “Are You the King of the Jews?” And Jesus said to him, “It is as you say.” (NASB)

Returning to Pilate’s inscription, why would the chief priests care what was written in Hebrew — the Romans were executing the sentence they and their followers demanded (Matthew 27:15-26; Mark 15:6-15; Luke 23:1-25, John 19:1-15)?  In the time of Christ, there was no meteg, which functions like a comma (among other things).  This is why the inscription mattered; it as actually:

Joshua the Nazarene AND the King of the Jews

which transliterates to the following in Hebrew:

Yehoshu’a HaNatzri VeMelech HaYehudim

Taking the first letters of each work yields YHVH (yod-he-vav-he) or the TetragrammatonYahoah, the true pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, is the preincarnate Christ — the firstborn of Creation; everything was created through and for Him, and in Him all things hold together (Colossians 1:15-20)!  Here it is in Google translate:

Pilate's Inscription in Hebrew

As far as I know, this was first proposed in Peter Michas’ book entitled “The Rod of an Almond Tree in God’s Master Plan.”  I do not agree with everything written in that book, but I believe Michas was spot on this topic; Robert Vander Maten allegedly proposed the idea in the early 1990’s.  For more information, see here.

As was discussed above, Christ was buried on the same day that He was “hung on a tree” (14 Abib in 36 CE) — in this case, a Roman crucifixion likely on a crux commissa — so that this “blasphemer” would not defile the Promised Land per the Law.

John 19:38 After these things Joseph of Arimathea, being a disciple of Jesus [lit. Joshua], but a secret one for fear of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus; and Pilate granted permission. So he came and took away His body. 39 Nicodemus, who had first come to Him by night, also came, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds weight. 40 So they took the body of Jesus [lit. Joshua] and bound it in linen wrappings with the spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews. 41 Now in the place where He was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb in which no one had yet been laid. 42 Therefore because of the Jewish day of preparation, since the tomb was nearby, they laid Jesus there. (NASB)

What was the modus operandi for Christ’s “criminal act?”  It’s quite simple:

Galatians 3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us — for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree” — 14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we would receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. (NASB)

That’s truly amazing, isn’t it?  Christ died for ALL of us so that we may everlasting life!  Folks, that sums up the New Covenant/Testament (Heb. B’rit Chadashah) in a nutshell.

Be sure to read the companion articles in the Mo’edim and Agricultural Feasts series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

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Mo’ed: Shabbat (Weekly Sabbath)

Leviticus 23:1 [Lit. Yahoah] spoke again to Moses, saying, 2 “Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘[Lit. Yahoah’s] appointed times which you shall proclaim as holy convocations — My appointed times are these:’ (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 24th and the “morning” of March 25th of the pagan Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

The seventh day marked the first of God’s appointed times (Heb. mo’edim):

Genesis 2:1 Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts. 2 By the seventh day God completed His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. 3 Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made. (NASB)

What is important to note in verse 3 of the Genesis account is that God (lit. Elohim) blessed and sanctified/consecrated the seventh day. However, significantly more content is provided regarding the weekly Sabbath – the seventh day of each week – in Jubilees:

Jubilees 2:1 And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying: Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works.

Continuing at verse 16:

Jubilees 2:16 And He finished all His work on the sixth day – all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in everything. 17 And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. 18 And all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification, these two great classes – He hath hidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 19 And He said unto us: “Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day, and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 20 And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My firstborn son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work.” 21 And thus He created therein a sign in accordance with which they should keep Sabbath with us on the seventh day, to eat and to drink, and to bless Him who hath created all things as He hath blessed and sanctified unto Himself a peculiar people above all peoples, and that they should keep Sabbath together with us. 22 And He caused His commands to ascend as a sweet savour acceptable before Him all the days. 23 There (were) two and twenty heads of mankind from Adam to Jacob, and two and twenty kinds of work were made until the seventh day; this is blessed and holy; and the former also is blessed and holy; and this one serves with that one for sanctification and blessing. 24 And to this (Jacob and his seed) it was granted that they should always be the blessed and holy ones of the first testimony and law, even as He had sanctified and blessed the Sabbath day on the seventh day. 25 He created heaven and earth and everything that He created in six days, and God made the seventh day holy, for all His works; therefore, He commanded on its behalf that, whoever doth any work thereon shall die, and that he who defileth it shall surely die. 26 Wherefore do thou command the children of Israel to observe this day that they may keep it holy 4 and not do thereon any work, and not to defile it, as it is holier than all other days. 27 And whoever profaneth it shall surely die, and whoever doeth thereon any work shall surely die eternally, that the children of Israel may observe this day throughout their generations, and not be rooted out of the land; for it is a holy day and a blessed day. 28 And everyone who observeth it and keepeth Sabbath thereon from all his work, will be holy and blessed throughout all days like unto us. 29 Declare and say to the children of Israel the law of this day both that they should keep Sabbath thereon, and that they should not forsake it in the error of their hearts; (and) that it is not lawful to do any work thereon which is unseemly, to do thereon their own pleasure, and that they should not prepare thereon anything to be eaten or drunk. and (that it is not lawful) to draw water, or bring in or take out thereon through their gates any burden, which they had not prepared for themselves on the sixth day in their dwellings. 30 And they shall not bring in nor take out from house to house on that day; for that day is more holy and blessed than any jubilee day of the jubilees: on this we kept Sabbath in the heavens before it was made known to any flesh to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth. 31 And the Creator of all things blessed it, but He did not sanctify all peoples and nations to keep Sabbath thereon, but Israel alone: them alone He permitted to eat and drink and to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth. 32 And the Creator of all things blessed this ay which He had created for a blessing and a sanctification and a glory above all days. 33 This law and testimony was given to the children of Israel as a law for ever unto their generations.

To reiterate the imperative points from this passage in Jubilees:

  1. The weekly Sabbath is hallowed for all ages and is appointed as a sign of God’s twenty-two works completed during the six days of Creation.
  2. Torah observers are to work for six days but rest on the seventh day of each week.
  3. The weekly Sabbath is observed both on Earth and in Heaven.
  4. Jacob (Heb. Ya’akov), the grandson of Abraham and son of Isaac who was renamed Israel, is specifically mentioned as the patriarch (lit. “firstborn son”) of the sanctified people of God, that is the father of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. They were taught about the weekly Sabbath and the preeminence of it.
  5. God commanded that if the children of Israel performed work on the weekly Sabbath or otherwise defiled it, they would die; they were to observe this day in perpetuity and keep it holy as it is “holier than all other days.”
  6. The weekly Sabbath was and continues to be observed in Heaven before it was revealed to man.
  7. Only Israelites are sanctified people.

As far as weekly Sabbath observance goes for Gentiles, there were only four commandments established at the First Council of Jerusalem documented in Acts 15:1-35 concentrating on verses 19-20 and 28-29:

Acts 15:19 Therefore it is my judgment that we do not trouble those who are turning to God from among the Gentiles, 20 but that we write to them that they abstain from things contaminated by idols and from fornication and from what is strangled and from blood. (NASB)

Acts 15:28 “For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these essentials: 29 that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols and from blood and from things strangled and from fornication; if you keep yourselves free from such things, you will do well. Farewell.” (NASB)

Therefore, Sabbath observance is not a requirement for Gentiles, but neither is it acceptable to substitute another day for weekly worship (i.e., Sunday). It also does not mean that we are not “under the Law” as most “New Testament churches” proclaim; we were given four directives that are still applicable today! What modern Christian church teaches this? As believing Gentiles in Christ, we are adopted sons, grafted into the natural olive tree (that is, we become part of God’s sanctified people with our Hebraic roots supporting us), and will desire to follow the Law as it is put in our hearts and written on our minds:

Ephesians 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, 4 just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and blameless before Him. In love 5 He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will, 6 to the praise of the glory of His grace, which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved. 7 In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace 8 which He lavished on us… (NASB)

Romans 11:17 But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them and became partaker with them of the rich root of the olive tree, 18 do not be arrogant toward the branches; but if you are arrogant, remember that it is not you who supports the root, but the root supports you. 19 You will say then, “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” 20 Quite right, they were broken off for their unbelief, but you stand by your faith. Do not be conceited, but fear; 21 for if God did not spare the natural branches, He will not spare you, either. 22 Behold then the kindness and severity of God; to those who fell, severity, but to you, God’s kindness, if you continue in His kindness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 23 And they also, if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these who are the natural branches be grafted into their own olive tree? (NASB)

Hebrews 10:14 For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified. 15 And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying,

16 “THIS IS THE COVENANT THAT I WILL MAKE WITH THEM
AFTER THOSE DAYS, SAYS THE LORD:
I WILL PUT MY LAWS UPON THEIR HEART,
AND ON THEIR MIND I WILL WRITE THEM,”

He then says,

17 “AND THEIR SINS AND THEIR LAWLESS DEEDS
I WILL REMEMBER NO MORE.”

18 Now where there is forgiveness of these things, there is no longer any offering for sin. (NASB)

How comforting are those words? We know that believing in Christ that our sins and misdeeds will be forgiven. That is what Grace is all about; that topic will be developed further when discussing Judgment Day in the future Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) article. For now, re-read John 3:16-18.

Fourteen years later at the Second Council of Jerusalem documented in Galatians 2, Peter – the apostle to the circumcised (Jews/Israelites) – was opposed by Paul – the apostle to the uncircumcised (Gentiles) – over the application of the Mosaic Law (Torah) and hypocrisy thereof by the Jewry regarding believing Gentiles. It was determined that believers in Christ are justified (saved) through faith in Him not by works of the Law; otherwise, Christ died needlessly. However, the children of Israel are to follow the Law in perpetuity as they are a sanctified people. Concentrate on verses 15-16 and 21:

Galatians 2:15 “We are Jews by nature and not sinners from among the Gentiles; 16 nevertheless knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the Law but through faith in Christ Jesus, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the Law; since by the works of the Law no flesh (lit. mortal man) will be justified. (NASB)

Galatians 2:21 I do not nullify the grace of God, for if righteousness comes through the Law, then Christ died needlessly.” (NASB)

That is another sacred cow that must be slaughtered at this point. Peter was NEVER in Rome; he was the apostle to the Jews. Paul was the apostle to the Gentiles, was a Roman citizen from birth, converted from Pharisaism to the “sect” called The Way, and certainly traveled to Rome. Peter did not establish the Roman Catholic Church! No matter how many times a lie is repeated, it will never become the truth.

Regarding the fourth point above, recall that Abraham was the father of both Ishmael (Arabs) and Isaac, and Isaac was the father of Esau (Edom) and Jacob. Only Jacob (aka Israel) was the father of the sanctified people of God (i.e., Hebrews). The sons of Ishmael play prominently in the Middle East to this day and especially in eschatology, and the sons of Esau were exceptionally powerful in Israel just before and after Christ was incarnate as was discussed the the Mystery Babylon article.

Of all the points, the sixth was the most astonishing: the weekly Sabbath was observed and sanctified in Heaven long before it was revealed to man. In fact, the second mention of the Sabbath (after the Genesis account) is in Exodus 16 when the Israelites collected manna in the desert wilderness of Sin after escaping captivity in Egypt:

Exodus 16:27 It came about on the seventh day that some of the people went out to gather, but they found none. 28 Then the Lord said to Moses, “How long do you refuse to keep My commandments and My instructions (lit. laws)? 29 See, the Lord has given you the sabbath; therefore He gives you bread for two days on the sixth day. Remain every man in his place; let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.” 30 So the people rested on the seventh day. (NASB)

This was codified when the Ten Commandments were spoken to Moses in Exodus 20 concentrating on verses 8-11:

Exodus 20:8 “Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. 9 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a sabbath of the Lord your God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant or your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you (lit. is in your gates). 11 For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (NASB)

These were literally “written in stone” by the finger of Elohim (which is the true origin of that idiom although some scholars incorrectly attribute it to Hammurabi):

Exodus 31:18 When He had finished speaking with him upon Mount Sinai, He gave Moses the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone, written by the finger of God. (NASB)

Although the importance of Exodus cannot be overstated, it is yet the seventh most frequent Biblical manuscript discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls – even behind Jubilees!

One last question many may be asking: How can the Sabbath be Saturday evening and Sunday morning in this time of the year in 2018? The answer to that is addressed in this article.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Mo’edim (appointed times) and Agricultural Feasts series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

Creation Week: Yom Shishi (Sixth Day) – The Last Day of Creation

Creation Day 6 - Animals and People

Colossians 1:15 [Who] is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation[?] 16 For [in] Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He [has existed prior to] all things, and in Him all things [endure]. (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 23rd and the “morning” of March 24th of the pagan Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

On the sixth day, all terrestrial fauna and the first human were created:

Genesis 1:24 Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind: cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth after their kind”; and it was so. 25 God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good. 26 Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” 27 God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. 28 God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” 29 Then God said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you; 30 and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and to every thing that moves on the earth [lit. in which is a living soul], I have given every green plant for food;” and it was so. 31 God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. (NASB)

That appears to be straight-forward; now examine Jubilees:

Jubilees 2:13 And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. 14 And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them, and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him dominion. And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. 15 And there were altogether two and twenty kinds.

The only new piece of information is v15 regarding the “two and twenty kinds.” That is a point to ponder. Does this refer to twenty-two “works” that God performed during the Creation from Day 1 through Day 6? Possibly. In Genesis 2:19-20, it states that Adam named all the “living creatures” including cattle, birds, and beasts of the field; refer to the endnote to Antiquities of the Jews 1.1.2 below. During the Creation, was there far less biodiversity than what is observed today? Jubilees 2:14b-15 appears to substantiate that. Evidence suggests that the Watchers corrupted the Creation – possibly through biogenetic engineering discussed in the Yom Rishon article. That corruption along with the sinfulness of mankind were the primary reasons for the Great Deluge, which was anything but myth. Going further down that rabbit hole… Would God create carnivorous dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus rex seeing them as “good?” Rob Skiba touched on that subject in his video in the same article around the 16:12 mark. Leviathan was created for a specific, prophetic purpose as was discussed in the Yom Chamishi article. Although macroevolution is not observed in the fossil record, microevolution – or adaptation to environment within species or “kinds” – certainly is. That is a primary contributor to the speciation observed today.

Returning to the sixth day of the Creation, Josephus recorded:

Ant. 1.1.1. On the sixth day he created the four-footed beasts, and made them male and female: on the same day he also formed man. Accordingly Moses says, That in just six days the world, and all that is therein, was made.

Josephus mentions male and female four-footed beasts but only that man was formed on the sixth day. Apparently, he was referencing Adam as this is clarified in Section 2:

Ant. 1.1.2. Moreover, Moses, after the seventh day was over begins to talk philosophically; and concerning the formation of man, says thus: That God took dust from the ground, and formed man, and inserted in him a spirit and a soul.* This man was called Adam, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one that is red, because he was formed out of red earth, compounded together; for of that kind is virgin and true earth. God also presented the living creatures, when he had made them, according to their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, who gave them those names by which they are still called. But when he saw that Adam had no female companion, no society, for there was no such created, and that he wondered at the other animals which were male and female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman; whereupon Adam knew her when she was brought to him, and acknowledged that she was made out of himself. Now a woman is called in the Hebrew tongue Issa; but the name of this woman was Eve (Heb. Chavvah/Gr. Heua) which signifies the mother of all living.

*Endnote: We may observe here, that Josephus supposed man to be compounded of spirit, soul, and body, with St. Paul, 1 Thessalonians 5:23, and the rest of the ancients: he elsewhere says also, that the blood of animals was forbidden to be eaten, as having in it soul and spirit, Antiq. B. III. ch. 11. sect. 2.

The Book of Jasher echoes the same account:

Jasher 1:1 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and God created man in his own image. 2 And God formed man from the ground, and he blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul endowed with speech. 3 And the Lord said, It is not good for man to be alone; I will make unto him a helpmeet. 4 And the Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept, and he took away one of his ribs, and he built flesh upon it, and formed it and brought it to Adam, and Adam awoke from his sleep, and behold a woman was standing before him. 5 And he said, This is a bone of my bones and it shall be called woman, for this has been taken from man; and Adam called her name Eve, for she was the mother of all living. 6 And God blessed them and called their names Adam and Eve in the day that he created them, and the Lord God said, Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.

Jubilees further records that Eve was formed in the SECOND week (the week after the Creation) and was brought into the Garden of Eden on the eightieth day — while Adam entered the Garden on the fortieth day:

Jubilees 3:4 And the Lord said unto us: “It is not good that the man should be alone: let us make a helpmeet for him.” 5 And the Lord our God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and he slept, and He took for the woman one rib from amongst his ribs, and this rib was the origin of the woman from amongst his ribs, and He built up the flesh in its stead, and built the woman. 6 And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband.” 7 Therefore shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 8 In the first week was Adam created, and the rib — his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 9 And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the Garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered into the Garden of Eden.

Notice the “laws of motherhood” in Leviticus 12: it’s a total of 40 days of purification for a male child (7+33 days) and 80 for a female (14+66 days). The reasoning is tied DIRECTLY to the Jubilees 3:4-9 passage above. Note that when Christ was born, two turtledoves or two young pigeons were offered per Leviticus 12:6-8 concentrating on vv6 and 8:

Luke 2:22 And when the days for their purification according to the law of Moses were completed, they brought Him up to Jerusalem to present Him to the Lord 23 (as it is written in the Law of the Lord, “Every firstborn male that opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord”), 24 and to offer a sacrifice according to what was said in the Law of the Lord, “A pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons.” (NASB)

That is because they were poor; the wise men from Qumran had not arrived with the gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrhh. The “holy family” remained in Bethlehem for FORTY DAYS after Christ’s birth, then they departed for Egypt by night after Joseph had his vision. This did not occur immediately after His birth as most churches teach; Christ had to be circumcised on the eighth day, and Mary had to make a sin offering. EVERYTHING was performed in accordance with the Law of Moses.

Now, note the following passages concerning marriage and the role of the husband and wife in 1 Timothy 2:9-15; Ephesians 5:22-33; 1 Corinthians 7. Again, this all goes back to the beginning. Although wives are to subject themselves to their husbands, a righteous husband is to place the needs of his wife before his own — just as Christ sacrificed His life for us!

Examine the beast identified as Behemoth in Job 40:15 (mistakenly identified as the hippopotamus and similar animals by various translators); it would have been created on this same day:

Job 40:15 “Behold now, Behemoth, which I made as well as you;
He eats grass like an ox.
16 “Behold now, his strength in his loins
And his power in the muscles of his belly.
17 “He bends his tail like a cedar;
The sinews of his thighs are knit together.
18 “His bones are tubes of bronze;
His limbs are like bars of iron.
19 “He is the first of the ways of God;
Let his maker bring near his sword.
20 “Surely the mountains bring him food,
And all the beasts of the field play there.
21 “Under the lotus plants he lies down,
In the covert of the reeds and the marsh.
22 “The lotus plants cover him with shade;
The willows of the brook surround him.
23 “If a river rages, he is not alarmed;
He is confident, though the Jordan rushes to his mouth.
24 “Can anyone capture him when he is on watch,
With barbs can anyone pierce his nose? (NASB)

Obviously, the problem with the hippopotamus identification is with v17a: “He bends his tail like a cedar.” All hippos have small tails. The lotus plants of vv21-22 were actually lotus trees; water lilies or shrubs do not provide shade. Diospyros lotus could be a candidate as they grow upwards of 30m (~98 feet) high. Likewise, could men pierce a hippo’s nose with barbs and capture it? Certainly! Although exceptionally dangerous, this description is not one of a hippo. Behemoth was more likely referencing one of the extinct sauropods of which the Brachiosaurus was one of the larger exemplars.

Copyright © 2017 CollectA, Brachiosaurus – Deluxe 1:40 Scale

Arguably, the most confounding verse in the Creation account is Genesis 1:26 – especially regarding the following statement:

Recall from the discussion regarding the First Day of Creation that Elohim is the plural of Eloah; that is confirmed in the first row of the figure above. The Elohim, or tribe/family of God, reside in the Heavenly realm; therefore, they are extraterrestrial beings by definition. The Elohim are comprised of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Luke 3:21-22) as well as seraphim, cherubim, arch-/angels, and other heavenly host. We know that the Father has an embodiment like that of humans:

Revelation 3:21 He who overcomes, I will grant to him to sit down with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne. (NASB)

Although the Holy Spirit, the six-winged seraphim, and the four-winged cherubim have different forms, Adam was created in the image (Heb. tselem) and likeness (Heb. demuth) of the Father, Son, and the arch-/angels. Recall that the latter do not possess two wings and are exclusively male; anything to the contrary is false church tradition.

More specifics are provided in Genesis 2 as Yahoah Elohim created the ruddy Adam from dust of the Earth:

Genesis 2:7 Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being [lit. soul]. (NASB)

Recall that the Book of Jasher adds another detail:

Jasher 1:2 And God formed man from the ground, and he blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul endowed with speech.

Of course, Eve was formed from one of Adam’s ribs as was touched upon above:

Genesis 2:20 The man gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the sky [lit. heavens], and to every beast of the field, but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for [lit. corresponding to] him. 21 So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh at that place. 22 The Lord God fashioned [lit. built] into a woman the rib which He had taken from the man, and brought her to the man. 23 The man said,

“This is now bone of my bones,
And flesh of my flesh;
She [lit. This one] shall be called Woman (Heb. Ishshah),
Because she [lit. this one] was taken out of Man (Heb. Ish).”

24 For this reason a man shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his wife; and they shall become one flesh. (NASB)

Most Western readers oftentimes have difficulty comprehending Hebraic storytelling; Genesis 2 is an excellent example. Today’s world is so focused on the temporal; everything must be chronological. In many Middle Eastern cultures, concepts are developed separately then interwoven at the end. The following quote sums this point up perfectly albeit drawing on the similar Arabian style:

“One of the most revered traditions of oral storytelling is the hakawati. As intricate and complex as a weaving pattern, this motif-rich narrative style darts in and out of stories, offering unending drama where the storyteller begins one tale, deftly leaves it mid-way to pick up another and then has a third story emerging from a subplot of the first and so on. All this is done using the tools of allegory, folklore, satire, music and a visual spectacle of grand sweeping gestures and facial expressions to finally create an enthralling experience for his listeners.”

The Book of Luke is the only one of the Bible which is explicitly written in chronological, or consecutive, order (Luke 1:3); this was likely because “many scholars believe that Luke was a Greek physician who lived … in Antioch.” Please keep this in mind when studying the Scriptures always remembering that these accounts – other than Luke and Acts – were told and recorded from a Hebraic perspective. A person “skilled as a narrator of Torah and religious stories” is called a maggid.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Creation Week and Mo’edim (appointed times) series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

Creation Week: Yom Chamishi (Fifth Day)

Creation Day 5 - Birds and Fish

Colossians 1:15 [Who] is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation[?] 16 For [in] Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He [has existed prior to] all things, and in Him all things [endure]. (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 22nd and the “morning” of March 23rd of the pagan Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

On the fifth day, all aquatic and avian species were created:

IGenesis 1:20 Then God said, “Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.” 21 God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind; and God saw that it was good. 22 God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” 23 There was evening and there was morning, a fifth day. (NASB)

Examine the Hebrew word tannin(im) translated as “sea monsters.” According to the NAS Exhaustive Concordance, this word means serpent, dragon and sea monster. Does the Bible say anything else about sea monsters? In fact, it does using the term Leviathan in Job 3:8, 41; Psalm 74:13-14, 104:24-26; and Isaiah 27:1. The most descriptive passage is as follows:

Job 41:1 “Can you draw out Leviathan with a fishhook?
Or press down his tongue with a cord?
2 “Can you put a rope in his nose
Or pierce his jaw with a hook?
3 “Will he make many supplications to you,
Or will he speak to you soft words?
4 “Will he make a covenant with you?
Will you take him for a servant forever?
5 “Will you play with him as with a bird,
Or will you bind him for your maidens?
6 “Will the traders bargain over him?
Will they divide him among the merchants?
7 “Can you fill his skin with harpoons,
Or his head with fishing spears?
8 “Lay your hand on him;
Remember the battle; you will not do it again!
9 “Behold, your expectation is false;
Will you be laid low even at the sight of him?
10 “No one is so fierce that he dares to arouse him;
Who then is he that can stand before Me?
11 “Who has given to Me that I should repay him?
Whatever is under the whole heaven is Mine.
12 “I will not keep silence concerning his limbs,
Or his mighty strength, or his orderly frame.
13 “Who can strip off his outer armor?
Who can come within his double mail?
14 “Who can open the doors of his face?
Around his teeth there is terror.
15 “His strong scales are his pride,
Shut up as with a tight seal.
16 “One is so near to another
That no air can come between them.
17 “They are joined one to another;
They clasp each other and cannot be separated.
18 “His sneezes flash forth light,
And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.
19 “Out of his mouth go burning torches;
Sparks of fire leap forth.
20 “Out of his nostrils smoke goes forth
As from a boiling pot and burning rushes.
21 “His breath kindles coals,
And a flame goes forth from his mouth.
22 “In his neck lodges strength,
And dismay leaps before him.
23 “The folds of his flesh are joined together,
Firm on him and immovable.
24 “His heart is as hard as a stone,
Even as hard as a lower millstone.
25 “When he raises himself up, the mighty fear;
Because of the crashing they are bewildered.
26 “The sword that reaches him cannot avail,
Nor the spear, the dart or the javelin.
27 “He regards iron as straw,
Bronze as rotten wood.
28 “The arrow cannot make him flee;
Slingstones are turned into stubble for him.
29 “Clubs are regarded as stubble;
He laughs at the rattling of the javelin.
30 “His underparts are like sharp potsherds;
He spreads out like a threshing sledge on the mire.
31 “He makes the depths boil like a pot;
He makes the sea like a jar of ointment.
32 “Behind him he makes a wake to shine;
One would think the deep to be gray-haired.
33 “Nothing on earth is like him,
One made without fear.
34 “He looks on everything that is high;
He is king over all the sons of pride.” (NASB)

In case the description in Job 41 is insufficient to identify this sea monster, Psalm 74:14 and Isaiah 27:1 provide the final pieces of the puzzle:

Psalm 74:13 You divided the sea by Your strength;
You broke the heads of the sea monsters in the waters.
14 You crushed the heads of Leviathan;
You gave him as food for the creatures of the wilderness. (NASB)

Isaiah 27:1 In that day the Lord will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent,
With His fierce and great and mighty sword,
Even Leviathan the twisted serpent;
And He will kill the dragon who lives in the sea. (NASB)

What multi-headed (Psalm 74:13-14), fire-breathing (Job 41:18-21), sea dragon (Isaiah 27:1) existed in mythology? The Lernaean Hydra! According to Greek and Roman myth, Greek Heracles/Latin Hercules destroyed this beast using a sword and fire as the second of his Twelve Labors. The Bible states that in the Latter Days (just before the FIRST resurrection and Christ’s millenial reign according to Isaiah 26:19-21 and Revelation 19:20-21), the Lord will destroy Leviathan with His fierce, great, mighty sword, and Behemoth and she will be thrown into Gehenna. What is the source on which mythology is based? This was and is an actual creature; there is so much that humanity and science does not know about the Earth and what secrets are contained within it.

What is interesting from the “Leviathan” article in Wikipedia, is the following tradition preserved in Jewish midrash:

“In the Talmud Baba Bathra 75a, it is told that the Leviathan will be slain and its flesh served as a feast to the righteous in [the] Time to Come, and its skin used to cover the tent where the banquet will take place. The festival of Sukkot (Festival of Booths) therefore concludes with a prayer recited upon leaving the sukkah (booth): ‘May it be your will, Lord our God and God of our forefathers, that just as I have fulfilled and dwelt in this sukkah, so may I merit in the coming year to dwell in the sukkah of the skin of Leviathan. Next year in Jerusalem.'”

Will this creature be served to those invited to the Marriage Supper of the Lamb on a future Sukkot? Will its skin be used as the sukkah for this feast? Based on Psalm 74:14, that does not appear to be the case. For this and other reasons, take all rabbinic commentaries with a grain of salt. Perhaps the male is referenced in Psalm 74:14, and the female will be served to the elect in the Latter Days.

According to The Book of Enoch the Prophet translated by Richard Laurence, the following will occur on Judgment Day (based on 1 Enoch 68:5-6):

1 Enoch 68:7 In that day shall be distributed for food two monsters; a female monster, whose name is Leviathan, dwelling in the depths of the sea, above the springs of waters; 8 And a male monster whose name is Behemoth; which possesses, moving on his breast, the invisible wilderness. 9 His name was Dendayen in the east of the garden, where the elect and the righteous will dwell; where he received it from my ancestor, who was man, from Adam the first of men, whom the Lord of spirits made.”

Unfortunately, the translation by R.H. Charles does not corroborate this (even the chapter numbering is different):

1 Enoch 60:7 And on that day were two monsters parted, a female monster named Leviathan, to dwell in the abysses of the ocean over the fountains of the waters. 8 But the male is named Behemoth, who occupied with his breast a waste wilderness named Dûidâin, on the east of the garden where the elect and righteous dwell, where my grandfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam, the first man whom the Lord of Spirits created.

Regardless, both maintain that Leviathan is a REAL, female sea creature – not some metaphor. Behemoth was examined in my Revelation Study series. What is interesting is that the Charles translation states that Enoch, the seventh from Adam (Jude 1:14-15), was taken up in the wilderness of Dûidâin to the east of the Garden of Eden. The Bible does not elaborate on Enoch’s life other than he was the son of Jared, the father of Methuselah, and in his three hundred and sixty-fifth year was taken up alive into Heaven:

Hebrews 11:5 By faith Enoch was taken up so that he would not see death; AND HE WAS NOT FOUND BECAUSE GOD TOOK HIM UP; for he obtained the witness that before his being taken up he was pleasing to God. 6 And without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is and that He is a rewarder of those who seek Him. (NASB)

The text in upper case is referencing Genesis 5:24.

To conclude this section, Jubilees offers little more than the Genesis account, and Josephus offers even less:

Jubilees 2:11 And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by His hands, the fish and everything that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. 12 And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. These three kinds He created on the fifth day.

Ant. 1.1.1 “… And on the fifth day he produced the living creatures, both those that swim, and those that fly; the former in the sea, the latter in the air: he also sorted them as to society and mixture, for procreation, and that their kinds might increase and multiply.”

It is interesting that Josephus excluded any mention of sea monsters.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Creation Week and Mo’edim (appointed times) series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

Creation Week: Yom Revi’i (Fourth Day) – The REAL New Year (1 Abib)

Creation Day 4 - Sun, Moon, and Stars

Colossians 1:15 [Who] is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation[?] 16 For [in] Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He [has existed prior to] all things, and in Him all things [endure]. (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 21st and the “morning” of March 22nd of the pagan Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

As the preincarnate Christ was recognized as the Light of the first day of Creation, now the creation of the sun, moon, and stars occurred on the fourth day:

Genesis 1:14 Then God said, “Let there be lights [=”luminaries/light-bearers” throughout the passage] in the expanse [=”firmament” throughout the passage] of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. 16 God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night; He made the stars also. 17 God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18 and to govern the day and the night, and to separate the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good. 19 There was evening and there was morning, a fourth day. (NASB)

Four items should be noted regarding the sun, moon, and stars:

  1. Time accounting began on this day “… for seasons and for days and years;”
  2. They are used for Heavenly signs – not to be confused with astrology (Isaiah 47:13-14);
  3. ALL are luminaries or light-bearers (yes, even the moon!); and
  4. Each yom (=day) is, in fact, just that – there could not be eons between day three (when the flora were created) and day four (when the sun was created to make them grow).

Again, the Book of Jubilees adds details:

Jubilees 2:8 And on the fourth day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth, and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the light from the darkness. 9 And God appointed the sun* to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 10 And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. These three kinds He made on the fourth day.

*Footnote: Note the intentional omission of the moon. The writer objected to a calendar based upon the changes of the moon.

Note that sabbaths equates to “weeks” throughout this passage. By making this substitution, we have the following for v9:

“And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth:

  1. for days and
  2. for weeks and
  3. for months and
  4. for feasts (i.e., Heb. mo’edim or appointed times) and
  5. for years and
  6. for weeks of years (i.e., a grouping of seven years) and
  7. for jubilees (i.e., a grouping of seven weeks of years or 49 years) and
  8. for all seasons of the years (i.e., the equinoxes and solstices and their seasons).”

Josephus adds little else to the narrative:

Ant. 1.1.1 “… On the fourth day he adorned the heaven with the sun, the moon, and the other stars, and appointed them their motions and courses, that the vicissitudes of the seasons might be clearly signified.”

At this point, an image of how various cultures of antiquity – especially the Hebrews – viewed the world is appropriate:

“Ancient Hebrew Conception of the Universe.” Graphic by KarBel Multimedia. Copyright © 2012 Logos Bible Software.

Except for Sheol and the Great Deep, what was presented in the 1998 movie “The Truman Show” had some interesting similarities albeit on a much smaller scale. It demonstrates how most of society is trapped in a world of consumerism, self-absorption, vicarious living, voyeurism, and a false reality that only those who have awakened can escape – just like those who resist the secular and embrace the spiritual.

Returning to the figure above, that conception is only half right. The celestial sphere is just that – a sphere – although it is far from being abstract; it was the firmament created on the second day. Furthermore, the firmament is freely rotating as will be discussed below. However, the Earth is buoyant upon the waters of the Great Deep as is depicted; that is why dry land appeared on the third day.

Now, imagine looking straight down at the Earth from the point of the Gate of Heaven in the figure above onto a postdiluvian world. A growing minority is accepting – through research as well as personal observation and experimentation – that the Earth may exist in a form like that presented in the Gleason map:

Imagine the celestial sphere, or firmament, containing the Earth exactly at 90° South Latitude where it reads “Longitude East of Greenwich” on the map, and hold that thought for a moment. Some interesting comments are made at the bottom of the map concerning the course of the sun. Under the June Solstice section on the bottom left, it reads:

“In the figures June and December, the white represents the Sun’s position in his respective months, at Noon. This shows sunlight inside the Arctic Circle for 24 hours. From June 21st, the Sun moves round the Tropics in a spiral circle, widening every day, until it reaches its destiny on the southern or outer Solstice, on December 21st.”

Under the December Solstice section on the bottom right, it reads:

“On December 21st, the Sun moves round the Tropic of Capricorn, and during the day lights up the southern portion of the Earth from the Arctic Circle to some portion of the Antarctic ice. There is no ‘sunlight’ beyond 80° south, but unknown regions of ice. On the 23d (sic) of December, the Sun commences his northward journey again, returning to his starting place, and thus completes his seasons.”

That is certainly is not what “modern science” has taught in classroom across the world. To demonstrate how the sun would travel during the course of the year, examine the video entitled “Here comes the Sun – Flat Earth Sun explained.” Other videos display how the moon and planets – the latter called “wandering stars” by the ancients – operate within this construct. In fact, the etymology of the word “planet” derives from the Greek (asteres) planetai meaning “wandering (stars).” As an aside, it is interesting that the United Nations flag is modeled after the Gleason map.

A historical figure rarely heard about is Auguste Piccard, who was “a Swiss physicist, inventor and explorer, known for his record-breaking hot air balloon flights, with which he studied Earth’s upper atmosphere and cosmic rays…” Piccard was interviewed by Popular Science after safely returning from an ascent of 15,781m (51,775 feet) with his co-pilot Charles Kipfer on May 27, 1931 – shattering all altitude records at that time; it appeared in the August 1931 issue in the article entitled “Ten Miles High in an Air-Tight Ball.” Regarding the Earth from that altitude, he was quoted as saying:

“It seemed a flat disk with upturned edge.”

Afterwards, his “scientific heresy” was quickly swept under the rug – this profound discovery from an erudite explorer and first-hand observer. He witnessed the reality of this world and attempted to convey it as the scientist that he was. Regarding the “upturned edge,” was that referencing the Antarctic ice wall that allegedly encircles the Earth? On that subject, Piccard was silent – at least to the scientific community and general public.

Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd encountered this ice wall at the Ross Ice Shelf during his first Antarctic expedition in 1928-30 where he established the first Little America base. Note the image in the article captioned as “Ross Ice Shelf edge in 1997.” An interesting televised interview with Admiral Byrd regarding Antarctica was conducted on an episode of the “Longines Chronoscope;” the original air date is unknown at the time of this writing.

Examine the stars affixed to the dome of the firmament in this time-lapse photography by Lincoln Harrison:

Copyright © by Lincoln Harrison and Caters News.

It is simply amazing how the stars north of the equator rotate counterclockwise around Polaris, or the North or Pole Star. Meanwhile, for those south of the equator, the stars rotate clockwise around the imaginary south celestial pole (SCP). This is easily explained based on perspective. The following quote is found in the article entitled “The North Star: Polaris” on Space.com:

“Exactly where you see Polaris in your northern sky depends on your latitude. From New York it stands 41 degrees above the northern horizon, which also corresponds to the latitude of New York. Since 10 degrees is roughly equal to your clenched fist held at arm’s length, from New York Polaris would appear to stand about “four fists” above the northern horizon. At the North Pole, you would find it overhead. At the equator, Polaris would appear to sit right on the horizon. So if you travel to the north, the North Star climbs progressively higher the farther north you go. When you head south, the star drops lower and ultimately disappears once you cross the equator and head into the Southern Hemisphere.”

The converse holds true regarding the SCP on the opposite horizon. To reiterate, an observer at 90° North Latitude on the Earth would see Polaris directly overhead, but not the SCP, and all the stars would appear to rotate counterclockwise around it. Likewise, an observer standing at 90° South Latitude would witness the stars revolving around the SCP in a clockwise motion with no Polaris in sight. However, an observer directly on the equator would perceive Polaris to the north with the stars rotating counterclockwise around it AND the SCP to the south with the stars rotating clockwise around it – with both at opposite horizons, and all the constellations on the celestial equator would appear directly overhead.

To demonstrate this, a simple model is required. Take two, clear hemispheres labeling the apex of one “N”orth and the other “S”outh – think along the lines of a spherical baseball display case. Place some water in the “southern hemisphere” representing the Great Deep; blue food coloring may be added for effect. Next, drop in a buoyant Earth, say, a replica made from halving a ball of soap – wiping up any spillage from the water displacement. Attaching a downsized, laminated Gleason map on the flat surface would be a nice touch. Finally, adhere the “northern hemisphere” to the southern. Now, you have a true flat Earth model described in the Bible!

Follow this thought experiment employing the model described:

  1. North Pole Observer: With the “north pole” pointing upwards, rotate the “celestial sphere” counterclockwise with respect to that pole. All the visible stars above the horizon would appear to rotate counterclockwise.
  2. Equatorial Observer: With the poles at opposite horizons of the flat Earth model, rotate the “celestial sphere” counterclockwise with respect to the “north pole.” The stars would appear to rotate counterclockwise towards the north and clockwise towards the south.
  3. South Pole Observer: With the “south pole” pointing upwards, rotate the “celestial sphere” counterclockwise with respect to the “north pole.” All the visible stars above the horizon would appear to rotate clockwise.

This is exactly what is observed our geocentric universe and represents a viable alternative to the false heliocentric model of our solar system taught in our classrooms.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Creation Week and Mo’edim (appointed times) series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew