Mo’ed: Shabbat (Weekly Sabbath)

Leviticus 23:1 [Lit. Yahoah] spoke again to Moses, saying, 2 “Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘[Lit. Yahoah’s] appointed times which you shall proclaim as holy convocations — My appointed times are these:’ (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 24th and the “morning” of March 25th of the pagan Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

The seventh day marked the first of God’s appointed times (Heb. mo’edim):

Genesis 2:1 Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts. 2 By the seventh day God completed His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. 3 Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made. (NASB)

What is important to note in verse 3 of the Genesis account is that God (lit. Elohim) blessed and sanctified/consecrated the seventh day. However, significantly more content is provided regarding the weekly Sabbath – the seventh day of each week – in Jubilees:

Jubilees 2:1 And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying: Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works.

Continuing at verse 16:

Jubilees 2:16 And He finished all His work on the sixth day – all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in everything. 17 And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. 18 And all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification, these two great classes – He hath hidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 19 And He said unto us: “Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day, and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 20 And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My firstborn son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work.” 21 And thus He created therein a sign in accordance with which they should keep Sabbath with us on the seventh day, to eat and to drink, and to bless Him who hath created all things as He hath blessed and sanctified unto Himself a peculiar people above all peoples, and that they should keep Sabbath together with us. 22 And He caused His commands to ascend as a sweet savour acceptable before Him all the days. 23 There (were) two and twenty heads of mankind from Adam to Jacob, and two and twenty kinds of work were made until the seventh day; this is blessed and holy; and the former also is blessed and holy; and this one serves with that one for sanctification and blessing. 24 And to this (Jacob and his seed) it was granted that they should always be the blessed and holy ones of the first testimony and law, even as He had sanctified and blessed the Sabbath day on the seventh day. 25 He created heaven and earth and everything that He created in six days, and God made the seventh day holy, for all His works; therefore, He commanded on its behalf that, whoever doth any work thereon shall die, and that he who defileth it shall surely die. 26 Wherefore do thou command the children of Israel to observe this day that they may keep it holy 4 and not do thereon any work, and not to defile it, as it is holier than all other days. 27 And whoever profaneth it shall surely die, and whoever doeth thereon any work shall surely die eternally, that the children of Israel may observe this day throughout their generations, and not be rooted out of the land; for it is a holy day and a blessed day. 28 And everyone who observeth it and keepeth Sabbath thereon from all his work, will be holy and blessed throughout all days like unto us. 29 Declare and say to the children of Israel the law of this day both that they should keep Sabbath thereon, and that they should not forsake it in the error of their hearts; (and) that it is not lawful to do any work thereon which is unseemly, to do thereon their own pleasure, and that they should not prepare thereon anything to be eaten or drunk. and (that it is not lawful) to draw water, or bring in or take out thereon through their gates any burden, which they had not prepared for themselves on the sixth day in their dwellings. 30 And they shall not bring in nor take out from house to house on that day; for that day is more holy and blessed than any jubilee day of the jubilees: on this we kept Sabbath in the heavens before it was made known to any flesh to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth. 31 And the Creator of all things blessed it, but He did not sanctify all peoples and nations to keep Sabbath thereon, but Israel alone: them alone He permitted to eat and drink and to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth. 32 And the Creator of all things blessed this ay which He had created for a blessing and a sanctification and a glory above all days. 33 This law and testimony was given to the children of Israel as a law for ever unto their generations.

To reiterate the imperative points from this passage in Jubilees:

  1. The weekly Sabbath is hallowed for all ages and is appointed as a sign of God’s twenty-two works completed during the six days of Creation.
  2. Torah observers are to work for six days but rest on the seventh day of each week.
  3. The weekly Sabbath is observed both on Earth and in Heaven.
  4. Jacob (Heb. Ya’akov), the grandson of Abraham and son of Isaac who was renamed Israel, is specifically mentioned as the patriarch (lit. “firstborn son”) of the sanctified people of God, that is the father of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. They were taught about the weekly Sabbath and the preeminence of it.
  5. God commanded that if the children of Israel performed work on the weekly Sabbath or otherwise defiled it, they would die; they were to observe this day in perpetuity and keep it holy as it is “holier than all other days.”
  6. The weekly Sabbath was and continues to be observed in Heaven before it was revealed to man.
  7. Only Israelites are sanctified people.

As far as weekly Sabbath observance goes for Gentiles, there were only four commandments established at the First Council of Jerusalem documented in Acts 15:1-35 concentrating on verses 19-20 and 28-29:

Acts 15:19 Therefore it is my judgment that we do not trouble those who are turning to God from among the Gentiles, 20 but that we write to them that they abstain from things contaminated by idols and from fornication and from what is strangled and from blood. (NASB)

Acts 15:28 “For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these essentials: 29 that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols and from blood and from things strangled and from fornication; if you keep yourselves free from such things, you will do well. Farewell.” (NASB)

Therefore, Sabbath observance is not a requirement for Gentiles, but neither is it acceptable to substitute another day for weekly worship (i.e., Sunday). It also does not mean that we are not “under the Law” as most “New Testament churches” proclaim; we were given four directives that are still applicable today! What modern Christian church teaches this? As believing Gentiles in Christ, we are adopted sons, grafted into the natural olive tree (that is, we become part of God’s sanctified people with our Hebraic roots supporting us), and will desire to follow the Law as it is put in our hearts and written on our minds:

Ephesians 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, 4 just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and blameless before Him. In love 5 He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will, 6 to the praise of the glory of His grace, which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved. 7 In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace 8 which He lavished on us… (NASB)

Romans 11:17 But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them and became partaker with them of the rich root of the olive tree, 18 do not be arrogant toward the branches; but if you are arrogant, remember that it is not you who supports the root, but the root supports you. 19 You will say then, “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” 20 Quite right, they were broken off for their unbelief, but you stand by your faith. Do not be conceited, but fear; 21 for if God did not spare the natural branches, He will not spare you, either. 22 Behold then the kindness and severity of God; to those who fell, severity, but to you, God’s kindness, if you continue in His kindness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 23 And they also, if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these who are the natural branches be grafted into their own olive tree? (NASB)

Hebrews 10:14 For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified. 15 And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying,

16 “THIS IS THE COVENANT THAT I WILL MAKE WITH THEM
AFTER THOSE DAYS, SAYS THE LORD:
I WILL PUT MY LAWS UPON THEIR HEART,
AND ON THEIR MIND I WILL WRITE THEM,”

He then says,

17 “AND THEIR SINS AND THEIR LAWLESS DEEDS
I WILL REMEMBER NO MORE.”

18 Now where there is forgiveness of these things, there is no longer any offering for sin. (NASB)

How comforting are those words? We know that believing in Christ that our sins and misdeeds will be forgiven. That is what Grace is all about; that topic will be developed further when discussing Judgment Day in the future Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) article. For now, re-read John 3:16-18.

Fourteen years later at the Second Council of Jerusalem documented in Galatians 2, Peter – the apostle to the circumcised (Jews/Israelites) – was opposed by Paul – the apostle to the uncircumcised (Gentiles) – over the application of the Mosaic Law (Torah) and hypocrisy thereof by the Jewry regarding believing Gentiles. It was determined that believers in Christ are justified (saved) through faith in Him not by works of the Law; otherwise, Christ died needlessly. However, the children of Israel are to follow the Law in perpetuity as they are a sanctified people. Concentrate on verses 15-16 and 21:

Galatians 2:15 “We are Jews by nature and not sinners from among the Gentiles; 16 nevertheless knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the Law but through faith in Christ Jesus, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the Law; since by the works of the Law no flesh (lit. mortal man) will be justified. (NASB)

Galatians 2:21 I do not nullify the grace of God, for if righteousness comes through the Law, then Christ died needlessly.” (NASB)

That is another sacred cow that must be slaughtered at this point. Peter was NEVER in Rome; he was the apostle to the Jews. Paul was the apostle to the Gentiles, was a Roman citizen from birth, converted from Pharisaism to the “sect” called The Way, and certainly traveled to Rome. Peter did not establish the Roman Catholic Church! No matter how many times a lie is repeated, it will never become the truth.

Regarding the fourth point above, recall that Abraham was the father of both Ishmael (Arabs) and Isaac, and Isaac was the father of Esau (Edom) and Jacob. Only Jacob (aka Israel) was the father of the sanctified people of God (i.e., Hebrews). The sons of Ishmael play prominently in the Middle East to this day and especially in eschatology, and the sons of Esau were exceptionally powerful in Israel just before and after Christ was incarnate as was discussed the the Mystery Babylon article.

Of all the points, the sixth was the most astonishing: the weekly Sabbath was observed and sanctified in Heaven long before it was revealed to man. In fact, the second mention of the Sabbath (after the Genesis account) is in Exodus 16 when the Israelites collected manna in the desert wilderness of Sin after escaping captivity in Egypt:

Exodus 16:27 It came about on the seventh day that some of the people went out to gather, but they found none. 28 Then the Lord said to Moses, “How long do you refuse to keep My commandments and My instructions (lit. laws)? 29 See, the Lord has given you the sabbath; therefore He gives you bread for two days on the sixth day. Remain every man in his place; let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.” 30 So the people rested on the seventh day. (NASB)

This was codified when the Ten Commandments were spoken to Moses in Exodus 20 concentrating on verses 8-11:

Exodus 20:8 “Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. 9 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a sabbath of the Lord your God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant or your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you (lit. is in your gates). 11 For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (NASB)

These were literally “written in stone” by the finger of Elohim (which is the true origin of that idiom although some scholars incorrectly attribute it to Hammurabi):

Exodus 31:18 When He had finished speaking with him upon Mount Sinai, He gave Moses the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone, written by the finger of God. (NASB)

Although the importance of Exodus cannot be overstated, it is yet the seventh most frequent Biblical manuscript discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls – even behind Jubilees!

One last question many may be asking: How can the Sabbath be Saturday evening and Sunday morning in this time of the year in 2018? The answer to that is addressed in this article.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Mo’edim (appointed times) and Agricultural Feasts series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

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Creation Week: Yom Shishi (Sixth Day) – The Last Day of Creation

Creation Day 6 - Animals and People

Colossians 1:15 [Who] is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation[?] 16 For [in] Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He [has existed prior to] all things, and in Him all things [endure]. (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 23rd and the “morning” of March 24th of the pagan Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

On the sixth day, all terrestrial fauna and the first human were created:

Genesis 1:24 Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind: cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth after their kind”; and it was so. 25 God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good. 26 Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” 27 God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. 28 God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” 29 Then God said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you; 30 and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and to every thing that moves on the earth [lit. in which is a living soul], I have given every green plant for food;” and it was so. 31 God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. (NASB)

That appears to be straight-forward; now examine Jubilees:

Jubilees 2:13 And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. 14 And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them, and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him dominion. And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. 15 And there were altogether two and twenty kinds.

The only new piece of information is v15 regarding the “two and twenty kinds.” That is a point to ponder. Does this refer to twenty-two “works” that God performed during the Creation from Day 1 through Day 6? Possibly. In Genesis 2:19-20, it states that Adam named all the “living creatures” including cattle, birds, and beasts of the field; refer to the endnote to Antiquities of the Jews 1.1.2 below. During the Creation, was there far less biodiversity than what is observed today? Jubilees 2:14b-15 appears to substantiate that. Evidence suggests that the Watchers corrupted the Creation – possibly through biogenetic engineering discussed in the Yom Rishon article. That corruption along with the sinfulness of mankind were the primary reasons for the Great Deluge, which was anything but myth. Going further down that rabbit hole… Would God create carnivorous dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus rex seeing them as “good?” Rob Skiba touched on that subject in his video in the same article around the 16:12 mark. Leviathan was created for a specific, prophetic purpose as was discussed in the Yom Chamishi article. Although macroevolution is not observed in the fossil record, microevolution – or adaptation to environment within species or “kinds” – certainly is. That is a primary contributor to the speciation observed today.

Returning to the sixth day of the Creation, Josephus recorded:

Ant. 1.1.1. On the sixth day he created the four-footed beasts, and made them male and female: on the same day he also formed man. Accordingly Moses says, That in just six days the world, and all that is therein, was made.

Josephus mentions male and female four-footed beasts but only that man was formed on the sixth day. Apparently, he was referencing Adam as this is clarified in Section 2:

Ant. 1.1.2. Moreover, Moses, after the seventh day was over begins to talk philosophically; and concerning the formation of man, says thus: That God took dust from the ground, and formed man, and inserted in him a spirit and a soul.* This man was called Adam, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one that is red, because he was formed out of red earth, compounded together; for of that kind is virgin and true earth. God also presented the living creatures, when he had made them, according to their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, who gave them those names by which they are still called. But when he saw that Adam had no female companion, no society, for there was no such created, and that he wondered at the other animals which were male and female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman; whereupon Adam knew her when she was brought to him, and acknowledged that she was made out of himself. Now a woman is called in the Hebrew tongue Issa; but the name of this woman was Eve (Heb. Chavvah/Gr. Heua) which signifies the mother of all living.

*Endnote: We may observe here, that Josephus supposed man to be compounded of spirit, soul, and body, with St. Paul, 1 Thessalonians 5:23, and the rest of the ancients: he elsewhere says also, that the blood of animals was forbidden to be eaten, as having in it soul and spirit, Antiq. B. III. ch. 11. sect. 2.

The Book of Jasher echoes the same account:

Jasher 1:1 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and God created man in his own image. 2 And God formed man from the ground, and he blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul endowed with speech. 3 And the Lord said, It is not good for man to be alone; I will make unto him a helpmeet. 4 And the Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept, and he took away one of his ribs, and he built flesh upon it, and formed it and brought it to Adam, and Adam awoke from his sleep, and behold a woman was standing before him. 5 And he said, This is a bone of my bones and it shall be called woman, for this has been taken from man; and Adam called her name Eve, for she was the mother of all living. 6 And God blessed them and called their names Adam and Eve in the day that he created them, and the Lord God said, Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.

Jubilees further records that Eve was formed in the SECOND week (the week after the Creation) and was brought into the Garden of Eden on the eightieth day — while Adam entered the Garden on the fortieth day:

Jubilees 3:4 And the Lord said unto us: “It is not good that the man should be alone: let us make a helpmeet for him.” 5 And the Lord our God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and he slept, and He took for the woman one rib from amongst his ribs, and this rib was the origin of the woman from amongst his ribs, and He built up the flesh in its stead, and built the woman. 6 And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband.” 7 Therefore shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 8 In the first week was Adam created, and the rib — his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 9 And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the Garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered into the Garden of Eden.

Notice the “laws of motherhood” in Leviticus 12: it’s a total of 40 days of purification for a male child (7+33 days) and 80 for a female (14+66 days). The reasoning is tied DIRECTLY to the Jubilees 3:4-9 passage above. Note that when Christ was born, two turtledoves or two young pigeons were offered per Leviticus 12:6-8 concentrating on vv6 and 8:

Luke 2:22 And when the days for their purification according to the law of Moses were completed, they brought Him up to Jerusalem to present Him to the Lord 23 (as it is written in the Law of the Lord, “Every firstborn male that opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord”), 24 and to offer a sacrifice according to what was said in the Law of the Lord, “A pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons.” (NASB)

That is because they were poor; the wise men from Qumran had not arrived with the gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrhh. The “holy family” remained in Bethlehem for FORTY DAYS after Christ’s birth, then they departed for Egypt by night after Joseph had his vision. This did not occur immediately after His birth as most churches teach; Christ had to be circumcised on the eighth day, and Mary had to make a sin offering. EVERYTHING was performed in accordance with the Law of Moses.

Now, note the following passages concerning marriage and the role of the husband and wife in 1 Timothy 2:9-15; Ephesians 5:22-33; 1 Corinthians 7. Again, this all goes back to the beginning. Although wives are to subject themselves to their husbands, a righteous husband is to place the needs of his wife before his own — just as Christ sacrificed His life for us!

Examine the beast identified as Behemoth in Job 40:15 (mistakenly identified as the hippopotamus and similar animals by various translators); it would have been created on this same day:

Job 40:15 “Behold now, Behemoth, which I made as well as you;
He eats grass like an ox.
16 “Behold now, his strength in his loins
And his power in the muscles of his belly.
17 “He bends his tail like a cedar;
The sinews of his thighs are knit together.
18 “His bones are tubes of bronze;
His limbs are like bars of iron.
19 “He is the first of the ways of God;
Let his maker bring near his sword.
20 “Surely the mountains bring him food,
And all the beasts of the field play there.
21 “Under the lotus plants he lies down,
In the covert of the reeds and the marsh.
22 “The lotus plants cover him with shade;
The willows of the brook surround him.
23 “If a river rages, he is not alarmed;
He is confident, though the Jordan rushes to his mouth.
24 “Can anyone capture him when he is on watch,
With barbs can anyone pierce his nose? (NASB)

Obviously, the problem with the hippopotamus identification is with v17a: “He bends his tail like a cedar.” All hippos have small tails. The lotus plants of vv21-22 were actually lotus trees; water lilies or shrubs do not provide shade. Diospyros lotus could be a candidate as they grow upwards of 30m (~98 feet) high. Likewise, could men pierce a hippo’s nose with barbs and capture it? Certainly! Although exceptionally dangerous, this description is not one of a hippo. Behemoth was more likely referencing one of the extinct sauropods of which the Brachiosaurus was one of the larger exemplars.

Copyright © 2017 CollectA, Brachiosaurus – Deluxe 1:40 Scale

Arguably, the most confounding verse in the Creation account is Genesis 1:26 – especially regarding the following statement:

Recall from the discussion regarding the First Day of Creation that Elohim is the plural of Eloah; that is confirmed in the first row of the figure above. The Elohim, or tribe/family of God, reside in the Heavenly realm; therefore, they are extraterrestrial beings by definition. The Elohim are comprised of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Luke 3:21-22) as well as seraphim, cherubim, arch-/angels, and other heavenly host. We know that the Father has an embodiment like that of humans:

Revelation 3:21 He who overcomes, I will grant to him to sit down with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne. (NASB)

Although the Holy Spirit, the six-winged seraphim, and the four-winged cherubim have different forms, Adam was created in the image (Heb. tselem) and likeness (Heb. demuth) of the Father, Son, and the arch-/angels. Recall that the latter do not possess two wings and are exclusively male; anything to the contrary is false church tradition.

More specifics are provided in Genesis 2 as Yahoah Elohim created the ruddy Adam from dust of the Earth:

Genesis 2:7 Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being [lit. soul]. (NASB)

Recall that the Book of Jasher adds another detail:

Jasher 1:2 And God formed man from the ground, and he blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul endowed with speech.

Of course, Eve was formed from one of Adam’s ribs as was touched upon above:

Genesis 2:20 The man gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the sky [lit. heavens], and to every beast of the field, but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for [lit. corresponding to] him. 21 So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh at that place. 22 The Lord God fashioned [lit. built] into a woman the rib which He had taken from the man, and brought her to the man. 23 The man said,

“This is now bone of my bones,
And flesh of my flesh;
She [lit. This one] shall be called Woman (Heb. Ishshah),
Because she [lit. this one] was taken out of Man (Heb. Ish).”

24 For this reason a man shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his wife; and they shall become one flesh. (NASB)

Most Western readers oftentimes have difficulty comprehending Hebraic storytelling; Genesis 2 is an excellent example. Today’s world is so focused on the temporal; everything must be chronological. In many Middle Eastern cultures, concepts are developed separately then interwoven at the end. The following quote sums this point up perfectly albeit drawing on the similar Arabian style:

“One of the most revered traditions of oral storytelling is the hakawati. As intricate and complex as a weaving pattern, this motif-rich narrative style darts in and out of stories, offering unending drama where the storyteller begins one tale, deftly leaves it mid-way to pick up another and then has a third story emerging from a subplot of the first and so on. All this is done using the tools of allegory, folklore, satire, music and a visual spectacle of grand sweeping gestures and facial expressions to finally create an enthralling experience for his listeners.”

The Book of Luke is the only one of the Bible which is explicitly written in chronological, or consecutive, order (Luke 1:3); this was likely because “many scholars believe that Luke was a Greek physician who lived … in Antioch.” Please keep this in mind when studying the Scriptures always remembering that these accounts – other than Luke and Acts – were told and recorded from a Hebraic perspective. A person “skilled as a narrator of Torah and religious stories” is called a maggid.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Creation Week and Mo’edim (appointed times) series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

Creation Week: Yom Chamishi (Fifth Day)

Creation Day 5 - Birds and Fish

Colossians 1:15 [Who] is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation[?] 16 For [in] Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He [has existed prior to] all things, and in Him all things [endure]. (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 22nd and the “morning” of March 23rd of the pagan Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

On the fifth day, all aquatic and avian species were created:

IGenesis 1:20 Then God said, “Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.” 21 God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind; and God saw that it was good. 22 God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” 23 There was evening and there was morning, a fifth day. (NASB)

Examine the Hebrew word tannin(im) translated as “sea monsters.” According to the NAS Exhaustive Concordance, this word means serpent, dragon and sea monster. Does the Bible say anything else about sea monsters? In fact, it does using the term Leviathan in Job 3:8, 41; Psalm 74:13-14, 104:24-26; and Isaiah 27:1. The most descriptive passage is as follows:

Job 41:1 “Can you draw out Leviathan with a fishhook?
Or press down his tongue with a cord?
2 “Can you put a rope in his nose
Or pierce his jaw with a hook?
3 “Will he make many supplications to you,
Or will he speak to you soft words?
4 “Will he make a covenant with you?
Will you take him for a servant forever?
5 “Will you play with him as with a bird,
Or will you bind him for your maidens?
6 “Will the traders bargain over him?
Will they divide him among the merchants?
7 “Can you fill his skin with harpoons,
Or his head with fishing spears?
8 “Lay your hand on him;
Remember the battle; you will not do it again!
9 “Behold, your expectation is false;
Will you be laid low even at the sight of him?
10 “No one is so fierce that he dares to arouse him;
Who then is he that can stand before Me?
11 “Who has given to Me that I should repay him?
Whatever is under the whole heaven is Mine.
12 “I will not keep silence concerning his limbs,
Or his mighty strength, or his orderly frame.
13 “Who can strip off his outer armor?
Who can come within his double mail?
14 “Who can open the doors of his face?
Around his teeth there is terror.
15 “His strong scales are his pride,
Shut up as with a tight seal.
16 “One is so near to another
That no air can come between them.
17 “They are joined one to another;
They clasp each other and cannot be separated.
18 “His sneezes flash forth light,
And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.
19 “Out of his mouth go burning torches;
Sparks of fire leap forth.
20 “Out of his nostrils smoke goes forth
As from a boiling pot and burning rushes.
21 “His breath kindles coals,
And a flame goes forth from his mouth.
22 “In his neck lodges strength,
And dismay leaps before him.
23 “The folds of his flesh are joined together,
Firm on him and immovable.
24 “His heart is as hard as a stone,
Even as hard as a lower millstone.
25 “When he raises himself up, the mighty fear;
Because of the crashing they are bewildered.
26 “The sword that reaches him cannot avail,
Nor the spear, the dart or the javelin.
27 “He regards iron as straw,
Bronze as rotten wood.
28 “The arrow cannot make him flee;
Slingstones are turned into stubble for him.
29 “Clubs are regarded as stubble;
He laughs at the rattling of the javelin.
30 “His underparts are like sharp potsherds;
He spreads out like a threshing sledge on the mire.
31 “He makes the depths boil like a pot;
He makes the sea like a jar of ointment.
32 “Behind him he makes a wake to shine;
One would think the deep to be gray-haired.
33 “Nothing on earth is like him,
One made without fear.
34 “He looks on everything that is high;
He is king over all the sons of pride.” (NASB)

In case the description in Job 41 is insufficient to identify this sea monster, Psalm 74:14 and Isaiah 27:1 provide the final pieces of the puzzle:

Psalm 74:13 You divided the sea by Your strength;
You broke the heads of the sea monsters in the waters.
14 You crushed the heads of Leviathan;
You gave him as food for the creatures of the wilderness. (NASB)

Isaiah 27:1 In that day the Lord will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent,
With His fierce and great and mighty sword,
Even Leviathan the twisted serpent;
And He will kill the dragon who lives in the sea. (NASB)

What multi-headed (Psalm 74:13-14), fire-breathing (Job 41:18-21), sea dragon (Isaiah 27:1) existed in mythology? The Lernaean Hydra! According to Greek and Roman myth, Greek Heracles/Latin Hercules destroyed this beast using a sword and fire as the second of his Twelve Labors. The Bible states that in the Latter Days (just before the FIRST resurrection and Christ’s millenial reign according to Isaiah 26:19-21 and Revelation 19:20-21), the Lord will destroy Leviathan with His fierce, great, mighty sword, and Behemoth and she will be thrown into Gehenna. What is the source on which mythology is based? This was and is an actual creature; there is so much that humanity and science does not know about the Earth and what secrets are contained within it.

What is interesting from the “Leviathan” article in Wikipedia, is the following tradition preserved in Jewish midrash:

“In the Talmud Baba Bathra 75a, it is told that the Leviathan will be slain and its flesh served as a feast to the righteous in [the] Time to Come, and its skin used to cover the tent where the banquet will take place. The festival of Sukkot (Festival of Booths) therefore concludes with a prayer recited upon leaving the sukkah (booth): ‘May it be your will, Lord our God and God of our forefathers, that just as I have fulfilled and dwelt in this sukkah, so may I merit in the coming year to dwell in the sukkah of the skin of Leviathan. Next year in Jerusalem.'”

Will this creature be served to those invited to the Marriage Supper of the Lamb on a future Sukkot? Will its skin be used as the sukkah for this feast? Based on Psalm 74:14, that does not appear to be the case. For this and other reasons, take all rabbinic commentaries with a grain of salt. Perhaps the male is referenced in Psalm 74:14, and the female will be served to the elect in the Latter Days.

According to The Book of Enoch the Prophet translated by Richard Laurence, the following will occur on Judgment Day (based on 1 Enoch 68:5-6):

1 Enoch 68:7 In that day shall be distributed for food two monsters; a female monster, whose name is Leviathan, dwelling in the depths of the sea, above the springs of waters; 8 And a male monster whose name is Behemoth; which possesses, moving on his breast, the invisible wilderness. 9 His name was Dendayen in the east of the garden, where the elect and the righteous will dwell; where he received it from my ancestor, who was man, from Adam the first of men, whom the Lord of spirits made.”

Unfortunately, the translation by R.H. Charles does not corroborate this (even the chapter numbering is different):

1 Enoch 60:7 And on that day were two monsters parted, a female monster named Leviathan, to dwell in the abysses of the ocean over the fountains of the waters. 8 But the male is named Behemoth, who occupied with his breast a waste wilderness named Dûidâin, on the east of the garden where the elect and righteous dwell, where my grandfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam, the first man whom the Lord of Spirits created.

Regardless, both maintain that Leviathan is a REAL, female sea creature – not some metaphor. Behemoth was examined in my Revelation Study series. What is interesting is that the Charles translation states that Enoch, the seventh from Adam (Jude 1:14-15), was taken up in the wilderness of Dûidâin to the east of the Garden of Eden. The Bible does not elaborate on Enoch’s life other than he was the son of Jared, the father of Methuselah, and in his three hundred and sixty-fifth year was taken up alive into Heaven:

Hebrews 11:5 By faith Enoch was taken up so that he would not see death; AND HE WAS NOT FOUND BECAUSE GOD TOOK HIM UP; for he obtained the witness that before his being taken up he was pleasing to God. 6 And without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is and that He is a rewarder of those who seek Him. (NASB)

The text in upper case is referencing Genesis 5:24.

To conclude this section, Jubilees offers little more than the Genesis account, and Josephus offers even less:

Jubilees 2:11 And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by His hands, the fish and everything that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. 12 And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. These three kinds He created on the fifth day.

Ant. 1.1.1 “… And on the fifth day he produced the living creatures, both those that swim, and those that fly; the former in the sea, the latter in the air: he also sorted them as to society and mixture, for procreation, and that their kinds might increase and multiply.”

It is interesting that Josephus excluded any mention of sea monsters.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Creation Week and Mo’edim (appointed times) series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

Creation Week: Yom Revi’i (Fourth Day) – The REAL New Year (1 Abib)

Creation Day 4 - Sun, Moon, and Stars

Colossians 1:15 [Who] is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation[?] 16 For [in] Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He [has existed prior to] all things, and in Him all things [endure]. (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 21st and the “morning” of March 22nd of the pagan Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

As the preincarnate Christ was recognized as the Light of the first day of Creation, now the creation of the sun, moon, and stars occurred on the fourth day:

Genesis 1:14 Then God said, “Let there be lights [=”luminaries/light-bearers” throughout the passage] in the expanse [=”firmament” throughout the passage] of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. 16 God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night; He made the stars also. 17 God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18 and to govern the day and the night, and to separate the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good. 19 There was evening and there was morning, a fourth day. (NASB)

Four items should be noted regarding the sun, moon, and stars:

  1. Time accounting began on this day “… for seasons and for days and years;”
  2. They are used for Heavenly signs – not to be confused with astrology (Isaiah 47:13-14);
  3. ALL are luminaries or light-bearers (yes, even the moon!); and
  4. Each yom (=day) is, in fact, just that – there could not be eons between day three (when the flora were created) and day four (when the sun was created to make them grow).

Again, the Book of Jubilees adds details:

Jubilees 2:8 And on the fourth day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth, and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the light from the darkness. 9 And God appointed the sun* to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 10 And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. These three kinds He made on the fourth day.

*Footnote: Note the intentional omission of the moon. The writer objected to a calendar based upon the changes of the moon.

Note that sabbaths equates to “weeks” throughout this passage. By making this substitution, we have the following for v9:

“And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth:

  1. for days and
  2. for weeks and
  3. for months and
  4. for feasts (i.e., Heb. mo’edim or appointed times) and
  5. for years and
  6. for weeks of years (i.e., a grouping of seven years) and
  7. for jubilees (i.e., a grouping of seven weeks of years or 49 years) and
  8. for all seasons of the years (i.e., the equinoxes and solstices and their seasons).”

Josephus adds little else to the narrative:

Ant. 1.1.1 “… On the fourth day he adorned the heaven with the sun, the moon, and the other stars, and appointed them their motions and courses, that the vicissitudes of the seasons might be clearly signified.”

At this point, an image of how various cultures of antiquity – especially the Hebrews – viewed the world is appropriate:

“Ancient Hebrew Conception of the Universe.” Graphic by KarBel Multimedia. Copyright © 2012 Logos Bible Software.

Except for Sheol and the Great Deep, what was presented in the 1998 movie “The Truman Show” had some interesting similarities albeit on a much smaller scale. It demonstrates how most of society is trapped in a world of consumerism, self-absorption, vicarious living, voyeurism, and a false reality that only those who have awakened can escape – just like those who resist the secular and embrace the spiritual.

Returning to the figure above, that conception is only half right. The celestial sphere is just that – a sphere – although it is far from being abstract; it was the firmament created on the second day. Furthermore, the firmament is freely rotating as will be discussed below. However, the Earth is buoyant upon the waters of the Great Deep as is depicted; that is why dry land appeared on the third day.

Now, imagine looking straight down at the Earth from the point of the Gate of Heaven in the figure above onto a postdiluvian world. A growing minority is accepting – through research as well as personal observation and experimentation – that the Earth may exist in a form like that presented in the Gleason map:

Imagine the celestial sphere, or firmament, containing the Earth exactly at 90° South Latitude where it reads “Longitude East of Greenwich” on the map, and hold that thought for a moment. Some interesting comments are made at the bottom of the map concerning the course of the sun. Under the June Solstice section on the bottom left, it reads:

“In the figures June and December, the white represents the Sun’s position in his respective months, at Noon. This shows sunlight inside the Arctic Circle for 24 hours. From June 21st, the Sun moves round the Tropics in a spiral circle, widening every day, until it reaches its destiny on the southern or outer Solstice, on December 21st.”

Under the December Solstice section on the bottom right, it reads:

“On December 21st, the Sun moves round the Tropic of Capricorn, and during the day lights up the southern portion of the Earth from the Arctic Circle to some portion of the Antarctic ice. There is no ‘sunlight’ beyond 80° south, but unknown regions of ice. On the 23d (sic) of December, the Sun commences his northward journey again, returning to his starting place, and thus completes his seasons.”

That is certainly is not what “modern science” has taught in classroom across the world. To demonstrate how the sun would travel during the course of the year, examine the video entitled “Here comes the Sun – Flat Earth Sun explained.” Other videos display how the moon and planets – the latter called “wandering stars” by the ancients – operate within this construct. In fact, the etymology of the word “planet” derives from the Greek (asteres) planetai meaning “wandering (stars).” As an aside, it is interesting that the United Nations flag is modeled after the Gleason map.

A historical figure rarely heard about is Auguste Piccard, who was “a Swiss physicist, inventor and explorer, known for his record-breaking hot air balloon flights, with which he studied Earth’s upper atmosphere and cosmic rays…” Piccard was interviewed by Popular Science after safely returning from an ascent of 15,781m (51,775 feet) with his co-pilot Charles Kipfer on May 27, 1931 – shattering all altitude records at that time; it appeared in the August 1931 issue in the article entitled “Ten Miles High in an Air-Tight Ball.” Regarding the Earth from that altitude, he was quoted as saying:

“It seemed a flat disk with upturned edge.”

Afterwards, his “scientific heresy” was quickly swept under the rug – this profound discovery from an erudite explorer and first-hand observer. He witnessed the reality of this world and attempted to convey it as the scientist that he was. Regarding the “upturned edge,” was that referencing the Antarctic ice wall that allegedly encircles the Earth? On that subject, Piccard was silent – at least to the scientific community and general public.

Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd encountered this ice wall at the Ross Ice Shelf during his first Antarctic expedition in 1928-30 where he established the first Little America base. Note the image in the article captioned as “Ross Ice Shelf edge in 1997.” An interesting televised interview with Admiral Byrd regarding Antarctica was conducted on an episode of the “Longines Chronoscope;” the original air date is unknown at the time of this writing.

Examine the stars affixed to the dome of the firmament in this time-lapse photography by Lincoln Harrison:

Copyright © by Lincoln Harrison and Caters News.

It is simply amazing how the stars north of the equator rotate counterclockwise around Polaris, or the North or Pole Star. Meanwhile, for those south of the equator, the stars rotate clockwise around the imaginary south celestial pole (SCP). This is easily explained based on perspective. The following quote is found in the article entitled “The North Star: Polaris” on Space.com:

“Exactly where you see Polaris in your northern sky depends on your latitude. From New York it stands 41 degrees above the northern horizon, which also corresponds to the latitude of New York. Since 10 degrees is roughly equal to your clenched fist held at arm’s length, from New York Polaris would appear to stand about “four fists” above the northern horizon. At the North Pole, you would find it overhead. At the equator, Polaris would appear to sit right on the horizon. So if you travel to the north, the North Star climbs progressively higher the farther north you go. When you head south, the star drops lower and ultimately disappears once you cross the equator and head into the Southern Hemisphere.”

The converse holds true regarding the SCP on the opposite horizon. To reiterate, an observer at 90° North Latitude on the Earth would see Polaris directly overhead, but not the SCP, and all the stars would appear to rotate counterclockwise around it. Likewise, an observer standing at 90° South Latitude would witness the stars revolving around the SCP in a clockwise motion with no Polaris in sight. However, an observer directly on the equator would perceive Polaris to the north with the stars rotating counterclockwise around it AND the SCP to the south with the stars rotating clockwise around it – with both at opposite horizons, and all the constellations on the celestial equator would appear directly overhead.

To demonstrate this, a simple model is required. Take two, clear hemispheres labeling the apex of one “N”orth and the other “S”outh – think along the lines of a spherical baseball display case. Place some water in the “southern hemisphere” representing the Great Deep; blue food coloring may be added for effect. Next, drop in a buoyant Earth, say, a replica made from halving a ball of soap – wiping up any spillage from the water displacement. Attaching a downsized, laminated Gleason map on the flat surface would be a nice touch. Finally, adhere the “northern hemisphere” to the southern. Now, you have a true flat Earth model described in the Bible!

Follow this thought experiment employing the model described:

  1. North Pole Observer: With the “north pole” pointing upwards, rotate the “celestial sphere” counterclockwise with respect to that pole. All the visible stars above the horizon would appear to rotate counterclockwise.
  2. Equatorial Observer: With the poles at opposite horizons of the flat Earth model, rotate the “celestial sphere” counterclockwise with respect to the “north pole.” The stars would appear to rotate counterclockwise towards the north and clockwise towards the south.
  3. South Pole Observer: With the “south pole” pointing upwards, rotate the “celestial sphere” counterclockwise with respect to the “north pole.” All the visible stars above the horizon would appear to rotate clockwise.

This is exactly what is observed our geocentric universe and represents a viable alternative to the false heliocentric model of our solar system taught in our classrooms.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Creation Week and Mo’edim (appointed times) series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

Creation Week: Yom Shlishi (Third Day) – The True Vernal Equinox

Creation Day 3 - Land, Plants, and Trees

Colossians 1:15 [Who] is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation[?] 16 For [in] Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He [has existed prior to] all things, and in Him all things [endure]. (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 20th and the “morning” of March 21th of the secular Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

Next, examine the Genesis account for the third day:

Genesis 1:9 Then God said, “Let the waters below the heavens be gathered into one place, and let the dry land appear”; and it was so. 10 God called the dry land earth, and the gathering of the waters He called seas; and God saw that it was good. 11 Then God said, “Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees on the earth bearing fruit after their kind with seed in them”; and it was so. 12 The earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit with seed in them, after their kind; and God saw that it was good. 13 There was evening and there was morning, a third day. (NASB)

First, the waters below the heavens were gathered into one place; some refer to this superocean as Panthalassa. Second, dry land or the supercontinent some refer to as Pangaea appeared. Finally, all flora were created.

Now, examine what the Jubilees passage states:

Jubilees 2:5 And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear. 6 And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land appeared. 7 And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth, and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). These four great works God created on the third day.

Of course, more information is added. The supercontinent of Pangaea still appeared after the surface waters were gathered, but instead of just a superocean, God created the separate saltwater oceans and seas as well as the freshwater rivers, lakes, mountain water, and dew. Additionally, Eden was created along with its famous (or infamous, depending upon your perspective) Garden (Heb. Gan ‘Eden).  Other than the following passage, the Bible is silent as to the location of the Garden of Eden:

Genesis 2:10 Now a river flowed out of Eden to water the garden; and from there it divided and became four rivers [lit. heads]. 11 The name of the first is Pishon; it flows around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. 12 The gold of that land is good; the bdellium and the onyx stone are there. 13 The name of the second river is Gihon; it flows around the whole land of Cush. 14 The name of the third river is Tigris [Heb. Hiddekel]; it flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates [Heb. Perath]. (NASB)

According to work by archaeologist Juris Zarins, he believes he has identified Havilah as the area around the Hijaz Mountains in western Saudi Arabia. The Al-Hijaz region contains the Mahd adh Dhahab, or “Cradle of Gold,” and

“… a possible source of the Pishon River – a biblical name that has been speculated to refer to a now dried-out river formerly flowing 600 miles (970 km) northeast to the Persian Gulf via the Wadi Al-Batin system. Archaeological research led by Farouk El-Baz of Boston University indicates that the river system, now prospectively known as the Kuwait River, was active 2500–3000 BC.”

Bdellium is an oleo-gum resin used for perfumes, incense, and medicinal purposes – similar to myrrh. Theophrastus mentioned bdellium was found in Aria whereas Pliny the Elder recorded a source as Bactria and Nubia. Suffice it to say that it was indigenous to the Arabian Peninsula and the surrounding countries east of west of it – from modern-day Sudan to Afghanistan. Onyx is found in various regions throughout the world in varying colors. One place of note in the region where bdellium is also found is Yemen.

The Gihon is traditionally recognized as the Nile River – with its tributaries as the Blue Nile, White Nile, and the Atbarah rivers – while Cush (or Kush) is identified as parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Sudan.

Josephus added more content to the Genesis 2:10-14 narrative:

Ant. 1.1.3 Moses says further, that God planted a paradise in the east, flourishing with all sorts of trees; and that among them was the tree of life, and another of knowledge, whereby was to be known what was good and evil; and that when he brought Adam and his wife into this garden, he commanded them to take care of the plants. Now the garden was watered by one river, which ran round about the whole earth, and was parted into four parts. And Pishon, which denotes a multitude, running into India, makes its exit into the sea, and is by the Greeks called Ganges. Euphrates also, as well as Tigris, goes down into the Red Sea.* Now the name Euphrates, or Phrath, denotes either a dispersion, or a flower: by Tigris, or Diglath, is signified what is swift, with narrowness; and Gihon runs through Egypt, and denotes what arises from the east, which the Greeks call Nile.

*Endnote: By the Red Sea is not here meant the Arabian Gulf, which alone we now call by that name, but all that South Sea, which included the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf, as far as the East Indies; as Reland and Hudson here truly note, from the old geographers.

To recap Josephus, the rivers from the Genesis account are reconciled as:

  • Pishon = Ganges
  • Gihon = Nile
  • Tigris (aka Diglath) = Heb. Hiddekel
  • Euphrates (aka Phrath) = Heb. Perath

If all the modern-day continents were reformed into a supercontinent like Pangaea, it would easy to discern that the Garden of Eden was likely where the Persian Gulf is today and explain why it has not been rediscovered. That location would support a Mesopotamiancradle of civilization” as has been deduced through archaeology. It would also explain how antediluvian cultures spread to ancient Egypt, India, and China – the former two would have been nearly equidistant from that point.

When the fountains of the deep ruptured during the Great Flood, it caused the supercontinent to fracture with the modern continents sliding (and crashing!) into place via the resulting hydroplates. The Hydroplate Theory was introduced by Dr. Walt Brown in his book entitled: In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood. More information may be obtained through his Center for Scientific Creation website.

Author’s Note: This book is highly recommended; it is currently in its 8th edition. I have no association with Dr. Brown nor his website or ministry.

Before moving on to the fourth day of Creation, one additional item bears mentioning.  According to the calendrical documents 4Q320 and 4Q321 from the DSS, this day would serve as the vernal equinox – the day before the first calendrical day of the year – in all subsequent years.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Creation Week and Mo’edim (appointed times) series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

Creation Week: Yom Sheni (Second Day)

Creation Day 2 - Atmosphere

Colossians 1:15 [Who] is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation[?] 16 For [in] Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He [has existed prior to] all things, and in Him all things [endure]. (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this “yom” in history — the “evening” of March 19th and the “morning” of March 20th of the pagan Gregorian calendar on non-leap years — the following occurred…

The Scriptures state that the following events occurred on the second day of Creation:

Genesis 1:6 Then God said, “Let there be [a firmament] in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” 7 God made the [firmament], and separated the waters which were below the [firmament] from the waters which were above the [firmament]; and it was so. 8 God called the [firmament] heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day. (NASB)

The Lockman Foundation used the word “expanse” for the literal “firmament.” As the same Hebrew word is employed throughout this passage, focus on Genesis 1:6. That word is raqia with its root being raqa. The former is defined as an extended surface while the latter means to beat or spread out. That does not really provide a feel for its true meaning, so examine the following passages in Job and Isaiah:

Job 22:14 ‘Clouds are a hiding place for Him, so that He cannot see; And He walks on the vault [lit. circle] of heaven.’ (NASB)

Isaiah 40:22 It is He who [is enthroned] above the circle of the earth,
And its inhabitants are like grasshoppers,
Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain
And spreads them out like a tent to dwell in. (NASB)

The Hebrew word used on both verses translated as “circle” or “vault” is chug. Now, there are four descriptors: expanse, firmament, vault, and circle. How does Merriam-Webster define “firmament?”

As this definition references “heavens” and “heaven” appears in Genesis 1:8 as shamayim (=heaven or sky) with its root being mayim (=water), let us examine that primary definition as well:

Now, two more descriptors have been added: “arch of the sky” and “dome.” What is contained within this firmament? The water above (=clouds) and the waters below, which will be explored momentarily. Frequently, the Bible speaks of birds flying in the heavens. What are these “heavens” contained within the dome?

Meteorologists et al. refer to them as the:

  1. Troposhere,
  2. Stratosphere,
  3. Mesosphere,
  4. Thermosphere,
  5. Ionosphere,
  6. Exosphere, and
  7. Magnetosphere.

Who has not heard of the “seven heavens?” These have been proven to exist scientifically! How would the ancients have known that if it had not been revealed to them?

The most famous Biblical passages regarding the waters below (=“the fountains of the [great] deep”) and above (=“the floodgates of the sky”) are regarding the Great Flood:

Genesis 7:11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened. 12 The rain fell upon the earth for forty days and forty nights. (NASB)

Genesis 8:1 But God remembered Noah and all the beasts and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God caused a wind to pass over the earth, and the water subsided. 2 Also the fountains of the deep and the floodgates of the sky were closed, and the rain from the sky was restrained; 3 and the water receded steadily from the earth, and at the end of one hundred and fifty days the water decreased. (NASB)

All have been taught – with great certainty in our formative years – the internal structure of the Earth. Yet, the deepest borehole ever drilled was the Kola Superdeep Borehole at slightly over 7.6 miles. A significant find was discovered outlined in the “Research” section of the referenced Wikipedia article:

To scientists, one of the more fascinating findings to emerge from this well is that no transition from granite to basalt was found at the depth of about 7 km (4.3 mi), where the velocity of seismic waves has a discontinuity.  Instead the change in the seismic wave velocity is caused by a metamorphic transition in the granite rock. In addition, the rock at that depth had been thoroughly fractured and was saturated with water, which was surprising. This water, unlike surface water, must have come from deep-crust minerals and had been unable to reach the surface because of a layer of impermeable rock.

There you have it; scientific confirmation of the fountains of the deep! The source for the quote above was an article authored by Alan Bellows entitled “The Deepest Hole.”

Examine what Jubilees states regarding the second day of Creation:

Jubilees 2:4 And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day – half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day.

That concurs with the Genesis 1:6-8 account. But, Josephus adds additional details in Antiquities:

Ant. 1.1.1 … After this, on the second day, he placed the heaven over the whole world, and separated it from the other parts, and he determined it should stand by itself. He also placed a crystalline [firmament] round it, and put it together in a manner agreeable to the earth, and fitted it for giving moisture and rain, and for affording the advantage of dews.

According to him, the firmament was a self-standing, crystalline structure fitted for to provide moisture to the Earth via rain and dew. Regarding the “waters below,” Josephus remained silent.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Creation Week and Mo’edim (appointed times) series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew

Creation Week: Yom Rishon (First Day)

Creation Day 1 - Night & Day

Colossians 1:15 [Who] is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation[?] 16 For [in] Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities — all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He [has existed prior to] all things, and in Him all things [endure]. (NASB)

The following is a slightly modified excerpt from my forthcoming book entitled: Our Messiah Few REALLY Know. This represents copyrighted material; please treat it as such. On this yom in history — the “evening” of March 18th and the “morning” of March 19th of the pagan Gregorian calendar — the following occurred…

Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters. 3 Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. (NASB)

Most would assume that this “light” is referencing the sun. But, in fact, the sun was not created until the fourth yom; refer to the Yom Revi’i article regarding the first day of the Most High’s year. So, what possibly could the good light be that is separated from the darkness? Hint: It is part of the central Scriptural theme headlining this article. Here is confirmation of this mystery:

John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. 4 In Him was life, and the life was the Light of men. 5 The Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not [lit. overcome] it. 6 There came a man sent from God, whose name was John. 7 He came as a witness, to testify about the Light, so that all might believe through him. 8 He was not the Light, but he came to testify about the Light. 9 There was the true Light which, coming into the world, enlightens every man. 10 He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him. 11 He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive Him. 12 But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name, 13 who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God. (NASB)

Several NT passages declare this same truth proclaiming Christ’s being the Light; the following represents a non-exhaustive list:

Four important points about the Genesis and related passages regarding the first yom of Creation are:

  1. The word translated as God in Genesis 1:1 is Elohim; it is the plural form of Eloah. That fact will be developed further after reviewing the Jubilees passage below.
  2. The Holy Spirit, or Spirit of God, in Genesis 1:2 existed from the beginning with the Father. The only unpardonable sin is denying – or speaking against – the Holy Spirit (Matthew 12:31-32).
  3. The preincarnate, or spiritual form of, Christ was the Light of the first yom of Creation; He demonstrated a glimpse of that as He transfigured in the Matthew 17 passage above as well as appearing as a light from Heaven – brighter than the sun – on Saul’s journey to Damascus in Acts 9:1-31 and 26:1-32. He was literally the firstborn of the Creation; everything was created through and for Him; and all things hold together through Him as is recounted in the Colossians 1 passage.
  4. According to Reuben Alcalay, a famous Hebrew lexicographer and author of the Complete Hebrew-English Dictionary, Christ’s Name Yehoshu’a (=Yahoah saves; Gr. Iesous/Eng. Joshua) is the shortened form of “Let there be…”; see the following figure. His Name was truly the spoken Word of the Creation.

Now, examine the applicable passage from Jubilees:

Jubilees 2:1 And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying: Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2 For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him – the angels of the presence, and the angels of sanctification, and the angels [of the spirit of fire and the angels] of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirit of the clouds, and of darkness, and of snow and of hail and of hoar frost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer, and of all the spirits of His creatures which are in the heavens and on the earth, (He created) the abysses and the darkness, eventide (and night), and the light, dawn and day, which He hath prepared in the knowledge of His heart. 3 And thereupon we saw His works, and praised Him, and lauded before Him on account of all His works; for seven great works did He create on the first day.

Not only were the Heaven and Earth created on the first yom but all the spiritual beings who serve before the Father – including His Son! Again, Christ was the firstborn of Creation; everything was created through and for Him. He even created the abysses, which included She’ol in the OT and is referenced as Hades in the NT. That topic will be discussed in detail in articles regarding Christ’s death at His crucifixion as well as His Second Coming.

The canonized Bible speaks of the six-winged seraphim (Isaiah 6:1-7), the four-winged cherubim (Ezekiel 10 concentrating on v21; Genesis 3:22-24; Exodus 25:17-22), and ophanim (Ezekiel 1:15-21) as well as archangels (Jude 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 4:16) and angels (Matthew 26:53-54; Genesis 19:1; Genesis 22:10-12; Revelation 15:1) among other Heavenly host (Nehemiah 9:6; Luke 2:12-14). Note that the Bible does NOT state that arch-/angels have wings – not even two; that is another false church tradition. They are always presented as males; perhaps that is a reason why there is no marriage in Heaven (Matthew 22:30; Mark 12:25; and Luke 20:34-36). One of the better discourses on angels is found in Hebrews 1. Angels are messengers (Heb. malak/Gr. aggelos), are ministering spirits to believers, and comprise the army of God.

All of these spiritual beings – the Father, Son, Holy Spirit, seraphim, cherubim, ophanim, arch-/angels, and Heavenly host – comprise the Elohim; think of it as being the name of the family or tribe of El. As the Elohim reside in the Heavenly realm or domain (i.e., not on Earth), they are, by definition, extraterrestrial beings!

At this point, most will say that this line of reasoning is preposterous or claim it to be heresy! Is it? Read Genesis 6:1-8. In verse 2, the Hebrew translated as “sons of God” is bene ha’elohim. That passage leaves some ambiguity, but only two sons of God were explicitly noted in the canonized Bible: Adam (Luke 3:38) and Christ (Mark 1:1). Obviously, Genesis 6:2 is not referring to either of them. Yet, examine the following passages: Job 38:7 and Luke 20:34-36 concentrating on v36; these “sons of God” are referencing ANGELS! Examine the same phrase in the Septuagint: υιοί του Θεού; it is essentially the same as the NASB Lexicon for Luke 20:36.

Before delving into the Books of Jubilees, 1 Enoch and Jasher, Josephus wrote the following in Book 1, Chapter 3, Section 1 of his historical work Antiquities of the Jews:

Ant. 1.3.1 “For many angels* of God coupled with women, and begat sons that proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on the account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those the Grecians call giants.”

*Endnote: This notion, that the fallen angels were, in some sense, the fathers of the old giants, was the constant opinion of ancient antiquity.

As Josephus’ accounts are to be taken with a grain of salt, this remains tenuous at best. But, he firmly establishes that the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2 were angels (while the endnote commentary further qualifies them as “fallen angels”), and he introduced that their progeny were giants. This time, examine Genesis 6:1-8 more closely:

Genesis 6:1 Now it came about, when men began to multiply on the face of the land, and daughters were born to them, 2 that the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose. 3 Then the Lord said, “My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, because he also is flesh; nevertheless his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.” 4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown. 5 Then the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. 6 The Lord was sorry that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart. 7 The Lord said, “I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the land, from man to animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky; for I am sorry that I have made them.” 8 But Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord. (NASB)

Concentrate on the Nephilim in verse 4 and review this entry from Strong’s Concordance:

In fact, these tribes of giants were called by multiple names as is referenced in the Bible:

Therefore, the Josephus account does seem to corroborate the passages in Genesis 6 and Deuteronomy 1-2 cited above – that fallen angels procreated with human women and their progeny were giants! Recall that Deuteronomy and Genesis were the second and fourth most frequent manuscripts discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls, respectively; see the “Biblical books found” section.

Examine the following passage from the Book of Jasher [or Jashar] (Joshua 10:13; 2 Samuel 1:18):

Jasher 4:18 And their judges and rulers went to the daughters of men and took their wives by force from their husbands according to their choice, and the sons of men in those days took from the cattle of the earth, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, and taught the mixture of animals of one species with the other, in order therewith to provoke the Lord; and God saw the whole earth and it was corrupt, for all flesh had corrupted its ways upon earth, all men and all animals.

This translation applied “their judges and rulers” instead of angels, but examine the second portion of this verse closely. Were the “sons of men” simply cross-breeding “cattle of the earth, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air” or does this appear to be some sort of genetic engineering between species (i.e., outside of their “kind”)? Would simple cross-breeding (or animal husbandry) lead to corruption of God’s Creation in His eyes? That is highly unlikely. If genetic modification were exploited, how would mankind of that time in history have learned such advanced biotechnology only (again!) being realized today? Who taught them – the judges and rulers who forcibly took the daughters of men for their wives? Were these judges and rulers their gods?

Could it be that the Egyptian gods – such as Anubis, Ra, and Set – were the actual products of these genetic manipulations? Were these fallen angels and their progeny the basis for worldwide mythology and not simply imagined fantasies? What about the pantheon of the Greeks, Romans, Norse, Hindu, Shinto, Chinese, Africans, Native Americans, Mayans, Incas, Aztecs – literally civilizations worldwide? One thing is certain: the Book of Jasher is referenced TWICE in the Bible, yet it was excluded from canon. The more adventurous may study the Book of Jasher as well. For a thoughtful discourse regarding the contortion of Biblical FACT serving as the basis for mythology in various cultures, watch the video entitled “Mythology and the Coming Great Deception.”

1 Enoch is yet another book explicitly cited in the Bible (Jude 1:14-15 reiterates 1 Enoch 1:9) yet was not canonized. Jude also states the following:

Jude 1:6 And angels who did not keep their own domain, but abandoned their proper abode, He has kept in eternal bonds under darkness for the judgment of the great day, 7 just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them, since they in the same way as these indulged in gross immorality and went after strange flesh, are exhibited as an example in undergoing the punishment of eternal fire. (NASB)

Regardless, the expanded narrative on the fallen angels/Watchers (Daniel 4:17) describes not only the names of the leaders but exactly where they descended to Earth. This discourse commences in Chapter 6:

1 Enoch 6:1 And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto them beautiful and comely daughters. 2 And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: ‘Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men and beget us children.’ 3 And Semjâzâ, who was their leader, said unto them: ‘I fear ye will not indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.’ 4 And they all answered him and said: ‘Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.’ 5 Then sware they all together and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. 6 And they were in all two hundred; who descended [in the days] of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. 7 And these are the names of their leaders: Sêmîazâz, their leader, Arâkîba, Râmêêl, Kôkabîêl, Tâmîêl, Râmîêl, Dânêl, Êzêqêêl, Barâqîjâl, Asâêl, Armârôs, Batârêl, Anânêl, Zaqîêl, Samsâpêêl, Satarêl, Tûrêl, Jômjâêl, Sariêl. 8 These are their chiefs of tens.

According to this passage, these angels, who lusted after the daughters of men, descended on the summit of Mount Hermon. Note the following from the Wikipedia article on Mount Hermon in the “Epigraphy, archaeology and references in religious texts” section:

“An inscription on a limestone stele recovered by Warren from Qasr Antar was translated by George Nickelsburg to read: ‘According to the command of the greatest a(nd) Holy God, those who take an oath (proceed) from here.’ Nickelsburg connected the inscription with oath taken by the angels under Semjaza who took an oath together, bound by a curse in order to take wives in the Book of Enoch (1 Enoch 6:6). Hermon was said to have become known as ‘the mountain of oath’ by Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau.”

Author’s Note: The Banias spring at the foot of Mount Hermon is the source of the Banias River, one of the main tributaries of the Jordan River. This spring is important regarding the Baptism of John, and Mount Hermon plays into Christ’s transfiguration as will be examined in later articles.

In Chapter 7 of 1 Enoch, it is clear that the progeny of these angels and women were giants. However, either the word ell, which is Proto-Germanic, was mistranslated or the magnitude of their height was misinterpreted; otherwise, their height would have been approximately 4,500 feet tall. Regardless, an ell is NOT a Biblical measurement of length.

1 Enoch 7:1 And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. 2 And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: 3 Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, 4 the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. 5 And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another’s flesh, and drink the blood. 6 Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones.

What does the Bible state regarding the stature of these giants?

Numbers 13:31 But the men who had gone up with him said, “We are not able to go up against the people, for they are too strong for us.” 32 So they gave out to the sons of Israel a bad report of the land which they had spied out, saying, “The land through which we have gone, in spying it out, is a land that devours its inhabitants; and all the people whom we saw in it are men of great size. 33 There also we saw the Nephilim (the sons of Anak are part of the Nephilim); and we became like grasshoppers in our own sight, and so we were in their sight.” (NASB)

Once again, this passage mentions the postdiluvian Anakim being part of the antediluvian Nephilim of Genesis 6. These men were of great size making the Israelite spies feel as if they were grasshoppers by comparison. 2 Samuel 21:19-22 and 1 Chronicles 20:4-8 below speak of a man from Gath of great stature who had six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot – twenty-four digits in all – and was a descendant of the Raphah (i.e., Rephaim); that specific medical condition is called hexadactyly or more generally, polydactyly. Polydactyly and hyperdontia – including double rows of teeth – are sometimes associated with the medical condition known as gigantism.

1 Chronicles 20:4 Now it came about after this, that war broke out at Gezer with the Philistines; then Sibbecai the Hushathite killed Sippai, one of the descendants of the Raphah, and they were subdued. 5 And there was war with the Philistines again, and Elhanan the son of Jair killed Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam. 6 Again there was war at Gath, where there was a man of great stature who had twenty-four fingers and toes, six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot; and he also was descended from the Raphah. 7 When he taunted Israel, Jonathan the son of Shimea, David’s brother, killed him. 8 These were descended from the giants in Gath, and they fell by the hand of David and by the hand of his servants. (NASB)

This passage also states that Goliath’s brother Lahmi had a spear whose shaft “was like a weaver’s beam.” Likewise, Goliath’s armaments were described in greater detail in 1 Samuel 17:4-7:

1 Samuel 17:4 Then a champion came out from the armies of the Philistines named Goliath, from Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span. 5 He had a bronze helmet on his head, and he was clothed with scale-armor which weighed five thousand shekels of bronze. 6 He also had bronze greaves on his legs and a bronze javelin slung between his shoulders. 7 The shaft of his spear was like a weaver’s beam, and the head of his spear weighed six hundred shekels of iron; his shield-carrier also walked before him. (NASB)

To recap the stature and armaments of Goliath of Gath:

  • Height: Six cubits (=6 x 18”) and a span (=9”) or 9 feet, 9 inches
  • Bronze Helmet: No weight provided
  • Bronze Scale Armor: 5,000 shekels (~125 pounds)
  • Bronze Greaves: No weight provided
  • Bronze Javelin: No weight provided
  • Iron Spearhead (excluding the shaft): 600 shekels (~15 pounds)

Plus, he had his own shield carrier. Think of the strength it would take to wield such an enormous spear – much less wearing/carrying approximately 150 pounds of armaments.

Next, there is King Og of Bashan:

Deuteronomy 3:8 “Thus we took the land at that time from the hand of the two kings of the Amorites who were beyond the Jordan, from the valley of Arnon to Mount Hermon 9 (Sidonians call Hermon Sirion, and the Amorites call it Senir): 10 all the cities of the plateau and all Gilead and all Bashan, as far as Salecah and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan. 11 (For only Og king of Bashan was left of the remnant of the Rephaim. Behold, his bedstead was an iron bedstead; it is in Rabbah of the sons of Ammon. Its length was nine cubits and its width four cubits by a man’s forearm.) (NASB)

According to this account, King Og’s bed was 13-1/2 feet long and six feet wide. The Bible certainly serves as a historical record as the following explicit geographical locations from just this one passage exist to this day:

A wave of skeletal remains of giants had been discovered worldwide in the mid-1800s through the early 1900s – even in America. Oftentimes, these remains were allegedly turned over to the Smithsonian Institution, other museums, law enforcement, or historical preservationists from whom nothing was ever heard again. But, that path leads down a trail of conspiracy theory. The fact remains that numerous discoveries were reported – even by the New York Times – but during a time when yellow journalism was rampant. The Bible and extrabiblical texts attest to fallen angels/Watchers and giants, but modern journalistic sources regarding skeletal remains of giants are unconfirmed at best. The truth will be made known on Judgment Day, which will be discussed in a later article. Until then, investigate books such as Giants on Record: America’s Hidden History, Secrets in the Mounds and the Smithsonian Files by Jim Vieira and Hugh Newman.

The purpose of this digression was to explore phenomenon beyond our everyday experiences that defy scientific explanation. Some may liken that to the paranormal, but empirical evidence exists for the progeny of angelic beings with human women as is discussed in Biblical and parabiblical texts. If it can be definitively determined that these giants existed, then the cause for this gigantism must be discerned as well. For it to be a worldwide phenomenon precludes chance genetic mutations; those would be localized within a small population at best. Further proof lies in the high places (Heb. bamah) – or pagan temples – found throughout the world (with some now submerged); the Most High detested these. The first instance is found in Leviticus 26:27-33 concentrating on v30. Oftentimes, these were constructed in a pyramid or step-pyramidal design aligned astronomically with the vernal and autumnal equinoxes and various constellations.

1 Enoch 8:1 Moreover Azazyel taught men to make swords, knives, shields, breastplates, the fabrication of mirrors [lit. made them see which was behind them], and the workmanship of bracelets and ornaments, the use of paint, the beautifying of the eyebrows, [the use of] stones of every valuable and select kind, and of all sorts of dyes, so that the world became altered. 2 Impiety increased; fornication multiplied; and they transgressed and corrupted all their ways. 3 Amazarak taught all the sorcerers, and dividers of roots; 4 Armers [taught] the solution of sorcery; 5 Barkayal [taught] the observers of the stars; 6 Akibeel [taught] signs; 7 Tamiel taught astronomy; 8 And Asaradel taught the motion of the moon; 9 And men, being destroyed, cried out; and their voice reached to heaven.

While all of this was ongoing, all mankind and the animal kingdom became corrupted via forbidden knowledge and possible genetic manipulation, and it was the reason for the Great Flood in the time of Noah.

For another perspective, examine the Editors’ Note regarding angels and the creation in “The Israelite Samaritan Version of the Torah:”

“Israelite Samaritan tradition distinguishes between angels and humans. In this tradition, the angels are considered as ‘living’ and humans as ‘dead,’ in that angels are living forever and humans eventually die. At the foundation of the Israelite Samaritan belief in angels is the reasoning that the angels were created during the six days of creation (Gen 1:26): ‘Let us make man in our image,’ in which humans are said to be made in the image of the angels, and not of the Almighty.”

The following passage stresses the multitude of angels residing in Heaven (focusing on v53):

Matthew 26:51 And behold, one of those who were with Jesus reached and drew out his sword, and struck the slave of the high priest and cut off his ear. 52 Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back into its place; for all those who take up the sword shall perish by the sword. 53 Or do you think that I cannot appeal to My Father, and He will at once put at My disposal more than twelve legions of angels? (NASB)

In Christ’s time, a Roman legion consisted of 5- to 6,000 infantry (=foot soldiers) and cavalry (=horsemen); therefore, the 12 legions referenced in v53 would be between 60- and 72,000 angels. Other passages allude to the vast number of angels and/or heavenly host: 1 Chronicles 12:22, Isaiah 13:3-5, Luke 2:13-14, Jude 1:14-15, Revelation 5:11-12, and Revelation 19:19.

Returning to Colossians 1:16, there is much that most humans cannot perceive with the naked eye. Perception is typically limited to visible light in the electromagnetic spectrum unless one has a medical condition such as aphakia; others have seen infrared light under certain experimental conditions. Just as the passage in Colossians states, humans cannot perceive the invisible – including television and radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays; perhaps the spiritual realm naturally exists within these wavelengths. Perhaps the Holy Spirit communicates in extremely low frequency (ELF) in accordance with Romans 8:26-27 concentrating on v26; human hearing is typically limited to the 20 Hz to 20 kHz range. There is still much that is unexplained from the Creation – wonders that cannot be detected with our five senses nor understood until revealed.


Be sure to read the companion articles in the Creation Week and Mo’edim (appointed times) series:

Shema Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

Copyright (C) 1995-2018, L. Alan Schuetz. All rights reserved.


2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

HaDerech Scroll - Paleo-Hebrew